Chapter15IM

Chapter15IM - Chapter 15 Acid and Bases This is the first...

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Chapter 15 Acid and Bases This is the first of two chapters dealing with acids and bases. Upon completion of this chapter, your students should be able to: 1. Compare and contrast Arrhenius, Brønsted, and Lewis acids and bases. 2. Describe what is meant by conjugate acid-base pairs and give several examples. 3. Use K w to determine [H + ] and [OH - ] of solutions. 4. Define the pH scale and calculate pH and pOH given either [H + ] or [OH - ]. 5. Define strong and weak acids and bases; give several examples of each. 6. List properties of conjugate acid-base pairs. 7. Determine K a from experimental data. 8. Calculate pH, [H + ], weak acid concentration, and conjugate base concentration given K a and the initial concentration of the weak acid using the quadratic equation or the method of successive approximation as needed. 9. Calculate percent ionization for a weak acid. 10. Calculate pH, [OH - ], weak base concentration, and conjugate acid concentration given K b and the initial concentration of the weak base, using the quadratic equation or the method of successive approximation as needed. 11. Illustrate the relationship between K a , K b , and K w . 12. Calculate concentrations of all species present at equilibrium for diprotic and polyprotic acids. 13. Relate how molecular structure determines the strength of acids. 14. Compare the relative strengths of two groups of oxoacids. 15. Describe salt hydrolysis and explain how some salts produce neutral solutions, some acidic solutions, and others basic solutions. 16. Calculate the pH of salt solutions and determine the percent hydrolysis. 17. Describe acid-base properties of oxides and hydroxides. 18. Give several examples of Lewis acid-base reactions. Section 15.1 Brønsted Acids and Bases Brønsted acid is defined as a chemical species that is capable of donating a proton while a Brønsted base accepts a proton. For each Brønsted acid there is a corresponding conjugate base. For each Brønsted base there is a corresponding conjugate acid. It is important to note that a Brønsted acid/base conjugate pair differ in that the acid has an additional H + compared to that of the corresponding base. It should be noted that water can be either a Brønsted acid or base depending on what else is in solution. Water is also said to be amphoteric or amphiprotic. Section 15.2 The Acid-Base Properties of Water The autoionization of water can be written as
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Since this is an equilibriumexpression, the equilibrium constant can be written as However, since the concentration of water (approximately 55 M) does not significantly change by the very small amount of water that autoionizes, this constant value can be incorporated in Kc to give a new constant we call w . K w , like all equilibrium constants, is temperature dependent; however, at 25 0 C it has a value of 1.0 Η 10 -14 . Therefore, Kw=[H + ][OH - ]=1.0 ×10 -14 It should be noted that even in the most concentrated acid solution [OH - ] always has a nonzero value. (It can never equal zero because then the product of [H
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Chapter15IM - Chapter 15 Acid and Bases This is the first...

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