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Chapter10IM - Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding II Molecular...

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Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals This is the second chapter on chemical bonding. Chapter 9 introduced the concepts of ionic and covalent bonding and the use of Lewis structures. This chapter uses the concepts from Chapter 9 to discuss molecular geometries and related concepts. Upon completion of Chapter 10, the student should be able to: 1. Fill in the following chart using the VSEPR model: A central atom, B surrounding atoms and E lone pairs on central atom. Category Molecular Geometry Angle(s) Sketch of the Shape AB 6 E 0 AB 5 E 1 AB 4 E 2 AB 3 E 3 AB 2 E 4 AB 5 E 0 AB 4 E 1 AB 3 E 2 AB 2 E 3 AB 4 E 0 AB 3 E 1 AB 2 E 2 AB 3 E 0 AB 2 E 1 AB 2 E 0 2. Identify using the VSEPR model, what category (and thus the corresponding molecular geometry, angle(s) and sketch) a molecular or ion belongs given its formula. 3. Rationalize the observed decrease in angles for AB 4 E 0 , AB 3 E 1 , and AB 2 E 2 and for AB 3 E 0 and AB 2 E 1 . 4. Apply VSEPR model to compounds with more than one central atom. 5. Use the concepts of electronegativity, dipole moments, and VSEPR geometries to identify polar and nonpolar molecules. 6. Use dipole moment concepts to predict properties of cis and trans isomers. 7. Relate how a microwave oven functions and how the type of chemical bonds present effects the amount of energy absorbed. 8. Sketch and justify how potential energy changes versus the interatomic distance for a diatomic molecule. 9. Use Valence Bond theory, hybrid orbitals, and hybridization to explain the geometries predicted by VSEPR model. 10. Identify what type of hybrid orbitals are in common compounds and ions. 11. Apply the concepts of sigma and pi bonds and Valence Bond theory to explain properties of double and triple bonds and the concept of resonance. 12. State what physical property of oxygen gas is not accounted for by Valence Bond theory but is in Molecular Orbital theory.
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13. Explain the difference between bonding and anti-bonding orbitals using the concepts of constructive and destructive interference of waves. 14. Show molecular orbital energy diagrams for first and second row diatomic molecules identifying sigma and pi bonding and anti-bonding molecular orbitals. 15. Write molecular orbital electron configurations for simple diatomics. 16. Relate molecular orbital energy diagrams to bond order, bond length and bond strength. 17. Describe resonance using the Molecular Orbital theory. 18. Suggest the significance of the discoveries of fullerenes and nonotubes. Section 10.1 Molecular Geometry In Chapter 9, we used Lewis structures to describe the arrangement of atoms in molecules. Lewis structures also can be used to determine if double or triple bonds are likely in a molecule and if the atoms have lone pairs of electrons. Lewis structures do not, however, give the shape or geometry of the molecule. For example, the correct Lewis structure of water is H O H which gives no indication that the HOH angle is 104.5 o . It is for this reason that VSEPR is used. When discussing molecular geometries with your students, it may be useful to suggest
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