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Chapter8IM - Chapter 8 Periodic Relationships Among the...

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Chapter 8 Periodic Relationships Among the Elements This chapter presents a qualitative view of the periodic (repeating) relationships of the elements in the periodic table. Upon completion of Chapter 8, the student should be able to: 1. Explain the basis of the periodic table as described by Mendeleev and Meyer and indicate the shortcomings of their method. 2. Explain the basis of the periodic table as described by Moseley and how it predicted properties of “missing” elements. 3. Identify elements that correspond to each of the following groups: representative elements noble gases transition metals lanthanides actinides 4. Describe the electron configuration of cations and anions and identity ions and atoms that are isoelectronic. 5. Apply the concept of effective nuclear charge and shielding constants (screening constants) to justify why the first ionization energy is always smaller than the second ionization energy of a given atom. 6. Predict the trends from left to right and top to bottom of the periodic table for each of the following: atomic radius ionic radius ionization energy electron affinity metallic character 7. Relate why hydrogen could be placed in a class by itself when reviewing its chemical properties. 8. Provide examples of Group 1A elements reacting with oxygen to form oxides, peroxides, and superoxides. 9. Predict the reaction of alkali metals with water. 10. Describe the reactivity of alkaline earth metals with water. 11. Relate how strontium-90 could lead to human illness. 12. Compare the reactivity of boron, a metalloid, to aluminum. 13. Identify the metals, nonmetal, and metalloids of Group 4A. 14. Recall the reactions that form nitric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid. 15. List the halides (halogens) 16. Indicate the three hydrohalic acids that are strong acids and the one hydrohalic acid that is a weak acid. 17. Explain why the name for Group 8A has changed from inert gases to noble gases. 18. List the three “coinage” metals and explain their relative inertness. 19. Rationalize the characteristics of the properties of oxides of the third period elements. 20. Classify oxides as acidic, basic, or amphoteric. 21. Explain why concentrated bases such as NaOH should not be stored in glass containers.
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Section 8.1 Development of the Periodic Table Your author points out that the original periodic table developed by Mendeleev and Meyer based on atomic mass fell short because such an arrangement places potassium before argon. This would suggest that potassium should be in the same group as the noble gases and that argon would be classified with the alkali metals. This dilemma is resolved when atomic number is used to build the periodic table instead of atomic mass. An interesting assignment might be to have your students examine the rest of the periodic table and find where increasing atomic mass does not yield a smooth increase in atomic number. Once these inconsistencies are found then perhaps by investigating the properties of these elements
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