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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Gases This chapter examines the properties of gases. Upon completion of Chapter 5, your students should be able to: 1. List at least ten common substances that exist as gases at 1 atmosphere (atm) pressure and 25 o C. 2. Explain the difference between the terms gas and vapor. 3. List four physical characteristics of all gases. 4. Define the terms velocity, acceleration, force, newton, energy, joule, kinetic energy, pressure and pascal. 5. Describe the construction of and its functions. 6. Convert between torr, mmHg, atmospheres, and pascals. 7. State the difference between open-tube manometers and closed-tube manometers and explain how each is used. 8. Write, explain, and apply each of the following: Boyles law (P 1/ V and P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 ). Charles law (P T and V 1 / T 1 = V 2 / T 2 ). Avogadros law (V n). Ideal gas law (PV = nRT). 9. Explain the difference between the Kelvin temperature scale and the Celsius scale. 10. Describe the gas constant (R). 11. Define standard temperature and pressure (STP) and demonstrate that at STP one mole of gas occupies 22.4 liters. 12. Perform calculations involving density, the Ideal gas equation and molar mass. 13. Using the Ideal gas equation, determine the moles of a gas. 14. State Daltons law of partial pressures and utilize it in problems involving mixtures of gases including the collection of gases over water. 15. Define mole fraction and verify that P a = X a P total . 16. Explain the four assumptions upon which the kinetic molecular theory of gases is based. 17. State how the kinetic molecular theory of gases qualitatively explains the following: The compressibility of gases. Boyles law. Charles law. Avogadros law. Daltons law of partial pressure. 18. Perform calculations using root-mean-square speeds. 19. Describe the process of gaseous diffusion. 20. Explain how a real gas, behaving non-ideally, differs from an ideal gas as described by the four assumptions in the kinetic molecular theory of gases. 21. Describe conditions under which a real gas will approximate an ideal gas. 22. Apply van der Waals equation to real gases. Section 5.1 Substances that Exist as Gases Gases are all around us in the air we breathe. Our students know that gases fill the container in which they are placed, taking on the containers shape. Most students have experienced that air-filled water toys float, helping them understand that air is less dense than water. It is likely that students have not grasped the fact that there is no such thing as an insoluble solute gas in a gaseous solution. That is not to say, however, that mixtures of gases never separate. For example, carbon dioxide gas has a density of 1.977g/L at 0 o C. This is compared to the density of dry air of 1.293 g/L....
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- Spring '10