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Chapter 18
Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
This chapter covers the concepts of entropy and free energy as part of thermodynamics and
relates these concepts to equilibrium. Upon completion of this chapter, your students should be
able to:
1.
State the three laws of thermodynamics.
2.
Provide several examples of spontaneous processes.
3.
Give several examples of endothermic spontaneous processes.
4.
Define entropy using the terms disorder or randomness.
5.
Justify why entropy of one mole of steam is greater than the entropy of one mole of
water.
6.
Predict the sign on the change in entropy (∆S) for common processes.
7.
Describe what is meant by ∆S
universe
, ∆S
system
, and ∆S
surroundings
.
8.
Relate ∆S
universe
for spontaneous processes and for processes at equilibrium.
9.
Use thermodynamic table to determine ∆S
reaction
.
10. Mathematically relate ∆S
surroundings
to ∆H
system
and the temperature.
11. Express Gibbs free energy in terms of H, T and S.
12. Predict if a reaction is spontaneous, spontaneous in the reverse direction or at equilibrium
from the sign on ∆G.
13. Use thermodynamic tables to determine ∆G of a reaction.
14. Predict the direction of a spontaneous reaction given ∆H, ∆S and T.
15. Calculate ∆S for phase changes given ∆H
fusion
or ∆H
vaporization
and the melting and boiling
point temperatures.
16. Mathematically describe ∆G in terms of ∆G°, the gas constant, temperature and the
reaction quotient.
17. Relate ∆G°, and K, equilibrium constant.
18. Calculate K, equilibrium constant, using data from thermodynamic tables.
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View Full Document19. Describe the concept of coupled reactions and discuss the importance of this concept in
biological systems.
Section 18.1 The Three Laws of Thermodynamics
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 Spring '10
 Shaklovich

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