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Chapter_18IM

# Chapter_18IM - Chapter 18 Entropy Free Energy and...

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Chapter 18 Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium This chapter covers the concepts of entropy and free energy as part of thermodynamics and relates these concepts to equilibrium. Upon completion of this chapter, your students should be able to: 1. State the three laws of thermodynamics. 2. Provide several examples of spontaneous processes. 3. Give several examples of endothermic spontaneous processes. 4. Define entropy using the terms disorder or randomness. 5. Justify why entropy of one mole of steam is greater than the entropy of one mole of water. 6. Predict the sign on the change in entropy (∆S) for common processes. 7. Describe what is meant by ∆S universe , ∆S system , and ∆S surroundings . 8. Relate ∆S universe for spontaneous processes and for processes at equilibrium. 9. Use thermodynamic table to determine ∆S reaction . 10. Mathematically relate ∆S surroundings to ∆H system and the temperature. 11. Express Gibbs free energy in terms of H, T and S. 12. Predict if a reaction is spontaneous, spontaneous in the reverse direction or at equilibrium from the sign on ∆G. 13. Use thermodynamic tables to determine ∆G of a reaction. 14. Predict the direction of a spontaneous reaction given ∆H, ∆S and T. 15. Calculate ∆S for phase changes given ∆H fusion or ∆H vaporization and the melting and boiling point temperatures. 16. Mathematically describe ∆G in terms of ∆G°, the gas constant, temperature and the reaction quotient. 17. Relate ∆G°, and K, equilibrium constant. 18. Calculate K, equilibrium constant, using data from thermodynamic tables.

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19. Describe the concept of coupled reactions and discuss the importance of this concept in biological systems.
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