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Chapter_12IM - Chapter 12 Physical Properties of Solutions...

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Chapter 12 Physical Properties of Solutions This chapter brings together several concepts dealing with solutions. The primary emphasis in this chapter is aqueous solutions; however, solid solutions are of major importance especially in the manufacturing of metal alloys such as steel. Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to: 1. Use the terms saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated to describe solutions. 2. Distinguish between crystallization and precipitation. 3. Predict relative solubilities given the next dipole moment of solute and solvent. 4. Define, determine and inter-convert between each of the following: molarity percent by mass mole fraction molality 5. Suggest a shortcoming of molarity and explain why molality is a preferred concentration unit under certain conditions. 6. Use the concept of fractional crystallization to show how dissolved solids can be separated. 7. Describe how thermal pollution may effect the oxygen content in lakes or streams. 8. State Henry’s law and use it to determine the solubility of gases in liquids. 9. Rationalize why two common materials (NH 3 or CO 2 ) when dissolved in water do not follow Henry’s law. 10. Define colligative properties and give four examples (vapor – pressure lowering, freezing – point lowering, boiling – point elevation and osmotic pressure). 11. Use Raoult’s law to find vapor pressures or concentrations of solutions. 12. Describe the apparatus used in fractional distillation. 13. Predict the plot of pressure versus mole fraction for an ideal solution. 14. Rationalize the possibility of either positive or negative deviations from Raoult’s law by non-ideal solutions. 15. Perform calculations involving boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression, K f , K b and molality. 16. Use the concepts of osmotic pressure to describe the processes of osmosis and reverse osmosis. 17. Describe the following terms: semi-permeable membrane isotonic
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hypertonic hypotonic crenation 18. Use the concepts of colligative properties to determine molar mass. 19. Define the van’t Hoff factor and demonstrate how it is incorporated into the colligative property equations. 20. Give examples of common types of colloids and describe the dispersing medium and dispersed phase for each. 21. Describe the Tyndall effect. 22. Identify hydrophilic and hydrophobic colloids and describe the cleansing action of soap. Section 12.1 Types of Solutions Students have generally encountered saturated and unsaturated solutions. They have seen precipitates form but may not have observed the beauty of crystallization. It may be rewarding to demonstrate crystallization to your students.
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