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Chapter_7IM - Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and the Electronic...

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Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and the Electronic Structure of Atoms This chapter introduces quantum theory and its importance in describing electronic behavior. Upon completion of Chapter 7, your students should be able to: 1. Explain how Planck’s theory challenged classical physics. 2. Define wavelength, frequency, and amplitude of waves. 3. Utilize the relationship between speed, wavelength, and frequency (hertz). 4. Describe Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic radiation. 5. Recall from memory the speed of light (3.00 x 10 8 m/s). 6. Apply the metric unit of nano in calculations involving wavelength of light. 7. Classify various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of energy, frequency and wavelength. 8. Use Planck’s equation to determine energy, frequency, or wavelength of electromagnetic radiation. 9. Describe the photoelectric effect as explained by Einstein using such terms as threshold frequency, photons, kinetic energy, binding energy, light intensity, and number of electrons emitted. 10. Show how Bohr’s model of the atom explains emission, absorption and line spectra for the hydrogen atom. 11. Compare Bohr’s model of the atom and that of the sun and surrounding planets. 12. Predict the wavelength (frequency) of electromagnetic radiation emitted (absorbed) for electronic transitions in a hydrogen atom. 13. Use the terms ground state and excited state to describe electronic transitions. 14. Describe De Broglie’s relationship involving the wavelength of particles. 15. Explain why for common objects traveling at reasonable speeds the corresponding wavelength becomes vanishingly small. 16. Explain the major components of a laser and list three properties that are characteristic of a laser. 17. Describe Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. 18. Contrast orbits (shells) in Bohr’s theory with orbitals in quantum theory. 19. Discuss the concept of electron density. 20. State the four quantum numbers (n, ℓ, m , m s ) and describe their relationships. 21. Give the values of the angular momentum quantum number, ℓ, to common names for each orbital (s, p, d, f) and describe their shapes. 22. Account for the number of orbitals and number of electrons associated with each value of ℓ, the angular momentum quantum number. 23. Categorize orbital energy levels in many-electron atoms in order of increasing energy. 24. Write the four quantum numbers for all electrons in multi-electron atoms. 25. Predict the electron configuration and orbital diagrams for multi-electron atoms using the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule. 26. Deduce orbital diagrams from diamagnetic and paramagnetic data. 27. Derive the ground state electron configuration of multi-electron atoms using the
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Aufbau principle. 28. List several exceptions to the expected electron configuration for common metals (Cr, Mo, Cu, Ag, and Au).
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