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Chapter_4IM - Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions This...

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Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions This chapter introduces students to the concepts of reactions in aqueous solutions. Because water is used so universally as a solvent, it is important students understand the basic concepts of reactions that occur in water. Upon completion of Chapter 4, your students should be able to: 1. Describe the general properties of a solute, a solvent, and a solution. 2. Classify common compounds as strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, or nonelectrolytes (strong or weak acids or strong or weak bases). 3. Explain why water is often called a universal solvent utilizing the terms polar solvent, dissociation, ionization, and hydration. 4. Describe precipitation reactions using the terms solubility and precipitate. 5. Classify common ionic compounds as soluble or insoluble. 6. Predict the resulting products and write the molecular equation, ionic equation, and net ionic equation; and identify spectator ions given the reactants of a chemical reaction. 7. Explain the difference between Arrhenius acids and bases and Br φ nsted acids and bases. 8. Compare and contrast the properties of acids and bases. 9. List common examples of monoprotic, diprotic and triprotic acids. 10. Justify how some ions can act as an acid or as a base (amphoteric). 11. By using a chemical equation, explain why ammonia (NH 3 ) is classified as a Br φ nsted base. 12. Predict the products formed by acid-base neutralization reactions. 13. Describe what factor results in an oxidation-reduction reaction. 14. Identify oxidation half-reactions, reduction half-reactions, oxidizing agents and reducing agents. 15. Assign oxidation numbers to elements in compounds and ions. 16. Categorize redox reactions in terms of combination reactions, decomposition reactions, displacement reactions, and disproportionation reactions. 17. Predict the results of a chemical reaction involving metals given the activity series (electrochemical series). 18. Predict the results of a chemical reaction involving halogens given the halogen activity series. 19. Calculate the molarity of a solution given the mass (number of moles) of solute and the volume of solution. 20. Describe the method for preparing a specific molar solution given the volume of solution required and the solute to be used. 21. Describe in detail how to prepare a specific dilute solution given a known stock solution using dilution techniques. 22. Predict the mass of a precipitate formed using gravimetric analysis methods. 23. Deduce the mass percent of specific ions present in an original solution given the results of a gravimetric analysis. 24. Use the terms titration, standard solution, equivalence point, and indicator to describe quantitative studies of acid-base neutralization reactions.
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25. Determine the concentration of an unknown acid (base) given the results of an acid-base titration.
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