Carbohydrates•Carbohydrates - polyhydroxy aldehydes, polhydroxy ketones, or compounds that can be hydrolyzed from them– Designated with the suffix “ose”– Range in size from molecules containing three carbon atoms to gigantic molecules containing thousands of carbon atoms•Monosaccharides – carbohydrates that cannot by hydrolyzed to smaller units
Carbohydrates•Oligosaccharides - carbohydrates consisting of a few monosaccharides•Polysaccharides – carbohydrates consisting of thousands of covalently linked monosaccharides•Homopolysaccharides - polysaccharides containing only one kind of monosaccharide– Starch and cellulose are examples
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Monosaccharides•Monosaccharides are classified according to their most highly oxidized functional group– Aldoses contain a single aldehyde group – Ketoses contain a single ketone groupCCCCH2OHCCH2OHOHOHOHHOHHCCCCHOCCH2OHHOHOHHOHHOHHD-fructose(an aldohexose)(a ketohexose)D-glucose