BRT535_L13_02_24_11

BRT535_L13_02_24_11 - Plant Chemistry Fundamentals...

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Unformatted text preview: Plant Chemistry Fundamentals Carbohydrates Carbohydrates - polyhydroxy aldehydes, polhydroxy ketones, or compounds that can be hydrolyzed from them Designated with the suffix ose Range in size from molecules containing three carbon atoms to gigantic molecules containing thousands of carbon atoms Monosaccharides carbohydrates that cannot by hydrolyzed to smaller units Carbohydrates Oligosaccharides - carbohydrates consisting of a few monosaccharides Polysaccharides carbohydrates consisting of thousands of covalently linked monosaccharides Homopolysaccharides - polysaccharides containing only one kind of monosaccharide Starch and cellulose are examples Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are classified according to their most highly oxidized functional group Aldoses contain a single aldehyde group Ketoses contain a single ketone group C C C CH 2 OH C CH 2 OH O H O H OH H OH H C C C CHO C CH 2 OH H O H OH H OH H OH H D-fructose (an aldohexose) (a ketohexose) D-glucose Monosaccharides Monosaccharides readily form cyclic structures Cyclic hemiacetal and cyclic hemiketals of carbohydrates Furanoses: 5-membered rings Pyranoses: 6-membered rings OH OH OH O H O O H C H C H C H C H C H C H 2 OH OH OH O H O O H C H 2 C CH C H C H C H 2 5 5 2 3 4 6 1 6 1 2 3 4 (-D-fructofuranose) (-D-glucopyranose) anomeric center anomeric center perspective structural formula of a furanose perspective structural formula of a pyranose Disaccharides...
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BRT535_L13_02_24_11 - Plant Chemistry Fundamentals...

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