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CHAPTER 4 0 AN INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OUTLINE I. Levels of Structural Organization A. Function correlates with structure in the tissues of animals B. The organ systems of an animal are interdependent II. Introduction to the Bioenergetics of Animals A. Animals are heterotrophs that harvest chemical energy from the food they ingest B. Metabolic rate provides clues to an animal’s bioenergetic “strategy” C. Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related to body size among similar animals III. Body Plans and the External Environment A. Physical support on land depends on adaptations of body proportions and posture B. Body size and shape affect interactions with the environment IV. Regulating the Internal Environment A. Mechanisms of homeostasis moderate changes in the internal environment B. Homeostasis depends on feedback circuits OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. Define tissue and explain where it falls in the hierarchy of structural organization. 2. From micrographs or diagrams, correctly identify the following animal tissues, explain how their structure relates to function and give examples of each. a. Epithelial tissue: cuboidal, columnar, squamous b. Connective tissue: adipose, cartilage, bone c. Muscle: skeletal (striated), cardiac, smooth, nervous 3. Describe how metabolic rate can be determined for animals, and distinguish between basal metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate. 4. Describe several body shapes that maximize external surface area in contact with the environment. 5. Explain how animals with complex internal organization and relatively small surface area to volume ratio can have adequate surface area for materials exchange with the environment. 6. Describe the location and function of interstitial fluid. 7. Define homeostasis. 8. Distinguish between negative and positive feedback.
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592 Unit VII Animal Form and Function KEY TERMS tissues elastic fibers osteoblasts abdominal cavity epithelial tissue reticular fibers Haversian systems organ systems basement membrane fibroblasts blood metabolic rate simple epithelium macrophages nervous tissue calories (cal) stratified epithelium adipose tissue neuron kilocalories (kcal) cuboidal tendons muscle tissue basal metabolic rate columnar fibrous connective skeletal muscle standard metabolic rate squamous tissue striated muscle interstitial fluid mucous membrane ligaments cardiac muscle homeostasis connective tissue cartilage organs negative feedback loose connective tissuechondrocytes mesenteries positive feedback collagenous fibers bone thoracic cavity LECTURE NOTES There are several unifying themes in the study of animal anatomy and physiology. There is a correlation between form and function; functions are properties that emerge from the specific shape and order of body parts.
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