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CHAPTER 42 CIRCULATION AND GAS EXCHANGE OUTLINE I. Circulation in Animals A. Transport systems functionally connect the organs of exchange with the body cells: an overview B. Most invertebrates have a gastrovascular cavity or a circulatory system for internal transport C. Closed cardiovascular systems accommodate gill breathing or lung breathing in the vertebrates D. Rhythmic pumping of the mammalian heart drives blood through pulmonary and systemic circuits E. Structural differences among the blood vessels correlate with regional functions of the circulatory system F. Natural laws governing the movement of fluids in pipes effect blood flow and blood pressure G. Transfer of substances between the blood and the interstitial fluid occurs across the thin walls of capillaries H. The lymphatic system returns fluid to the blood and aids in body defense I. Blood is a connective tissue with cells suspended in plasma J. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States and many other developed nations II. Gas Exchange in Animals A. Gas exchange supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and disposes of carbon dioxide: an overview B. Gills are respiratory adaptations of most aquatic animals C. Tracheal systems and lungs are respiratory adaptations of terrestrial animals D. Control centers in the brain regulate the rate and depth of breathing E. Gases diffuse down pressure gradients in the lungs and other organs F. Respiratory pigments transport gases and help buffer the blood G. Deep-diving mammals stockpile oxygen and consume it slowly OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. List the major animal phyla with gastrovascular cavities, and explain why they do not need a circulatory system. 2. Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems. 3. Using an arthropod as an example, describe the circulation of hemolymph.
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616 Unit VII Animal Form and Function 4. Explain how hemolymph differs from blood. 5. Using an earthworm as an example, describe circulation of blood, and explain how it exchanges materials with interstitial fluid. 6. List the components of a vertebrate cardiovascular system. 7. Distinguish between an artery and a vein. 8. Using diagrams, compare and contrast the circulatory schemes of birds, amphibians, and mammals. 9. Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circuits, and explain the function of each. 10. Explain the advantage of double circulation over a single circuit. 11. Trace a drop of blood through the human heart, listing the structures it passes through en route. 12. List the four heart valves, describe their location, and explain their function. 13. Distinguish between systole and diastole. 14. Describe the events of the cardiac cycle, and explain what causes the first and second heart sounds.
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