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CHAPTER 48 NERVOUS SYSTEMS OUTLINE I. An Overview of Nervous Systems A. Nervous systems perform the three overlapping functions of sensory input, integration, and motor output B. The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells II. The Nature of Neural Signals A. Membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentration between a cell's contents and the extracellular fluid B. An action potential is an all-or-none change in the membrane potential C. Action potentials "travel" along an axon because they are self-propagating D. Chemical or electrical communication between cells occurs at synapses E. Neural integration occurs at the cellular level F. The same neurotransmitter can produce different effects on different types of cells III. Organization of Nervous Systems A. Nervous system organization tends to correlate with body symmetry B. Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized C. The vertebrate PNS has several components differing in organization and function IV. Structure and Function of the Vertebrate Brain A. The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the spinal cord B. The brain stem conducts data and controls automatic activities essential for survival C. The cerebellum controls movement and balance D. The thalamus and hypothalamus are prominent integrating centers of the diencephalon E. The cerebrum contains the most sophisticated integrating centers F. The human brain is a major research frontier OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. Compare the two coordinating systems in animals. 2. Describe the three major functions of the nervous system. 3. List and describe the three major parts of a neuron, and explain the function of each. 4. Explain how neurons can be classified by function. 5. Describe the function and location of each type of supporting cell. 6. Explain what a resting potential is, and list four factors that contribute to the maintenance of the resting potential.
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722 Unit VII Animal Form and Function 7. Define equilibrium potential, and explain why the K + equilibrium potential is more negative than the resting potential. 8. Define graded potential, and explain how it is different from a resting potential or action potential. 9. Describe the characteristics of an action potential, and explain the role membrane permeability changes and ion gates play in the generation of an action potential. 10. Explain how the action potential is propagated along a neuron. 11. Describe two ways to increase the effectiveness of nerve transmission. 12. Describe synaptic transmission across an electrical synapse and a chemical synapse. 13. Describe the role of cholinesterase, and explain what would happen if acetylcholine was not destroyed. 14. List some other possible neurotransmitters.
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course BIOL 119 taught by Professor Hannam during the Spring '11 term at SUNY Geneseo.

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