BIOS E-1a Lecture 02 083111 annotated

BIOS E-1a Lecture 02 083111 annotated - Lecture 2 Molecules...

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Reading: Chapters 2, 3 1 Lecture 2: Molecules of Life
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Organic Chemistry Organic molecules contain carbon Abundant in living organisms Macromolecules are large, complex organic molecules 2
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Carbon Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell Needs 4 more electrons to fill the shell It can make up to 4 bonds Usually single or double bonds Carbon can form nonpolar and polar bonds Molecules with nonpolar bonds (like hydrocarbons) are poorly water soluble Molecules with polar bonds are more water soluble 3
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Nucleus (a) Orbitals (b) Simplified depiction of energy shells + + + + + + Other energy orbitals of second shell contain 1 or 0 electrons Spherical s orbital of second shell is filled with 2 electrons First shell is filled with 2 electrons 4
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5
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Functional Groups Groups of atoms with special chemical features that are functionally important Each type of functional group exhibits the same properties in all molecules in which it occurs 6
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7 Selected biologically important functional groups that bond to carbon
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8 Selected biologically important functional groups that bond to carbon
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Isomers Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics Structural isomers: contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships Stereoisomers: identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers cis-trans isomers: positioning around double bond Enantiomers: mirror image of another molecule 9
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Isopropyl alcohol Propyl alcohol trans-butene (b) Two types of stereoisomers (a) Structural isomers Molecule Mirror image H C H H C C H H H H OH H C H H C C H H H C H H C C H H OH H H C H H H H C H H C C H C H H H H Enantiomers cis-butene Cis–trans isomers 10 Isomers
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l Thalidomide babies z One enantiomer is effective in relieving symptoms of morning sickness One enantiomer causes birth defects 11
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Macromolecules Condensation or dehydration reaction Links monomers to form polymers Hydrolysis Polymers broken down into monomers 12
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Polymer formation by dehydration reactions HO H H + Monomers HO 13
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HO H H H + Monomers H 2 O HO HO 14 Polymer formation by dehydration reactions
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HO H H H H H + Monomers H 2 O H 2 O HO HO HO HO 15 Polymer formation by dehydration reactions
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HO H H H H H H H + Monomers H 2 O H 2 O HO HO HO HO HO HO H 2 O 16 Polymer formation by dehydration reactions
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Breakdown of a polymer by hydrolysis reactions H HO 17
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H H H HO H 2 O HO HO 18 Breakdown of a polymer by hydrolysis reactions
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H H H H H HO HO H 2 O H 2 O HO HO HO 19 Breakdown of a polymer by hydrolysis reactions
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H H H HO H H H H + HO HO H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O HO HO HO HO 20 Breakdown of a polymer by hydrolysis reactions
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Condensation reactions and hydrolysis reactions are catalyzed by enzymes HO H H H H H H H H H H HO H H H
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BIOS E-1a Lecture 02 083111 annotated - Lecture 2 Molecules...

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