BIOS 2011 Lab 1 Enzymes

Bios 2011 lab 1 enzymes

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Unformatted text preview: Exercise 1 Enzymes ENZYMES Competitive Inhibition of Succinic Dehydrogense and the Effect of Enzyme Concentration and pH on a Amylase Activity Learning Objectives: 1. To become familiar with aspects of enzyme action in general, as exemplified by the two enzyme systems under study: bovine Succinic Dehydrogenase and porcine pancreatic α ­ Amylase. 2. To become acquainted with some rudimentary but essential laboratory skills and equipment. 3. To learn how to collect, analyze, and present quantitative data. Readings: Hillis, Sadava, Heller, and Price, Principles of Life, 2012. Pages 113-118. Appendix A, Use of Digital Micropipettors Appendix B, How to Present Results Assignment: Data and analysis write ­up. See Appendix I. Worth 20 points. Other duties: Pick up your ethanol tube for the PCR lab. You will need to collect and freeze an ant before the Mitosis/Meiosis lab so you can run PCR reactions on the DNA. INTRODUCTION Enzymes are organic catalysts that facilitate the chemical reactions that are vital to life. Enzymes are parts of metabolic pathways that keep cells alive by providing energy, manufacturing macromolecules, breaking down wastes and maintaining homeostasis. Enzymes are large biological molecules, usually proteins, though some enzymes are made of RNA. RNA enzymes are often called ribozymes. When catalyzing a reaction, an enzyme, like any catalyst, is not used up. It facilitates the reaction by effectively lowering the activation energy required to the level of energy available in the cell or its environment. The initial chemical reactants, called substrates, bind briefly to the enzyme at the active site, forming an enzyme substrate complex. After the substrate is bound, the reaction occurs and the products are released from the enzyme. The enzyme thus returns to its original state essentially unchanged. In theory, enzymes can catalyze the reaction equally well 1 Exercise 1 Enzymes in the forward direction towards product or the reverse direction toward substrates. This can be summed up in the general enzyme chemical reaction equation: E + S ⇌ ES ⇌ E + P . Where S=substrate(s), E=enzyme and P=product(s). However, enzymes in living systems usually catalyze the reaction in one direction only, because products are quickly used or stored, driving the equilibrium of the reaction toward the product. A hallmark of enzymes is specificity. While inorganic catalysts typically are capable of catalyzing a wide variety of chemical reactions, each enzyme can only catalyze a narrow set of chemical reactions. In living organisms most enzymes...
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIOLOGY 102 taught by Professor Anderson during the Spring '11 term at Harvard.

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