class16 - Reading Response Self and other You are in love...

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Unformatted text preview: Reading Response Self and other You are in love with someone. But he/she is not in love with you. Describe how you can use one of the ideas of social psychology (e.g., cognitive dissonance, stereotype threat, fundamental to help win the person’s love. attribution error, spotlight effect, etc.) Connectors Self and other • Milgram study -- 160 people in Omaha, Nebraska to a lawyer in Boston • 6 degrees of separation • A small number of connectors • How connected are you? 1 Outline Why is it good to go to Yale? Outline • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense • • • • Self Self and other Other Groups You think everyone notices you Example 1: The Spotlight effect 2 You think everyone notices you Example 2: The transparency effect You are terrific 1. Have you been in London? Yes, I have been in London / No, I have not been in London • • • • 2. Do you have a younger sibling? Yes, I have a younger sibling/ No, I do not have a younger sibling Lake Wobegon effect: “all the children are above average” 3. Do you like sushi? Yes, I like sushi/ No, I don’t like sushi You are terrific How good are you as a student? As a teacher? A lover? A driver? -- nature of feedback, different criteria for goodness, motivation to feel good about oneself? What you do makes sense Festinger -- Cognitive Dissonance theory The self-serving bias Students: Think about a class you did well in Think about a class you did poorly in Professors: Think about a paper you got accepted Think about a paper you got rejected Athletes, CEOs, accident reports Whenever people experience an internal inconsistency between two thoughts, it causes an unpleasant emotional state (dissonance) We act so as to reduce dissonance 3 Avoiding inconsistent information We attend to information in support of our existing views, rather than information that doesn’t support them Changing our attitudes to mesh with our decisions Example 1: Denigrating unchosen alternatives – What magazines do you read? M&M study M&M M&M M&M M&M M&M M&M 4 M&M M&M M&M M&M M&M M&M M&M M&M M&M 5 Changing our attitudes to mesh with our decisions Example 2: Insufficient-justification effect M&M M&M Young children and monkeys Insufficient-justification effect • Festinger & Carlsmith: Gave subjects a boring task, then asked subjects to lie to the next subject and say the experiment was exciting – paid ½ the subjects $1, other ½ $20 – then asked subjects to rate boringness of task – $1 group rated the task as far more fun than the $20 group – each group needed a justification for lying Cognitive dissonance really matters • It is the end of the world and you know it (“When prophecy fails”) • Hazing • Jobs and therapy • The dangers of rewarding children • $20 group had an external justification of money • since $1 isn’t very much money, $1 group said task was fun 6 What is going on in cognitive dissonance? • Not simply inconsistency • E.g., Insufficient justification effect Insufficient-justification effect • Festinger & Carlsmith: … – $1 group rated the task as far more fun than the $20 group – each group needed a justification for lying – But they each had one! Insufficient-justification effect • Festinger & Carlsmith: … – $1 group rated the task as far more fun than the $20 group – each group needed a justification for lying What is going on in cognitive dissonance? • Not simply inconsistency • E.g., Insufficient justification effect • Rather, we adjust our beliefs to make ourselves look more moral and rational than we really are. 7 What is going on in cognitive dissonance? • Not simply inconsistency • E.g., Insufficient justification effect • Rather, we adjust our beliefs to make ourselves look more moral and rational than we really are. You are terrific Attributions from behavior • Attribution – a claim about the cause of someone’s behavior – seeking a reason for the occurrence of events/behaviors – Heider Outline • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense • Self and other • Other • Groups Person bias in attributions • People give too much weight to personality and not enough to situational variables • Known as person bias – a.k.a. f undamental attribution error • early researcher • we intuitively attribute others’ actions to personality characteristics Cross-cultural differences • Western culture – people are in charge of own destinies – more attributions to personality • Some Eastern cultures – fate in charge of destiny – more attributions to situation 8 Summary so far • Enhancement of self • Over-simplification of other Why do we like others? • Proximity “mere exposure effect” • Similarity • Attractiveness Outline • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense • Self and other -- the fundamental attribution error • Other • Groups Attractiveness Bias – physically attractive people are rated higher on intelligence, competence, sociability, morality – studies • teachers rate attractive children as smarter, and higher achieving • adults attribute cause of unattractive child’ s misbehavior to personality, attractive child’ s to situation • judges give longer prison sentences to unattractive people 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course ECON 100B taught by Professor Wood during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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