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class17 - Outline Self and other Why do we like others...

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Self and other Outline • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense • Self and other -- the fundamental attribution error • Other • Groups Why do we like others? • Proximity “mere exposure effect” • Similarity • Attractiveness Attractiveness Bias – physically attractive people are rated higher on intelligence, competence, sociability, morality – studies • teachers rate attractive children as smarter, and higher achieving • adults attribute cause of unattractive child’s misbehavior to personality, attractive child’s to situation • judges give longer prison sentences to unattractive people 1
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How do we form impressions? 2. First impressions are fast: Thin slices -- teaching -- personality ratings -- Gaydar How do we form impressions? 1. The power of first impressions – Kelley’s study students had a guest speaker before the speaker came, half got a written bio saying speaker was “very warm”, half got bio saying speaker was “rather cold” “very warm” group rated guest more positively than “rather cold” group What effects do our perceptions of other people actually have on other people? Self-fulfilling Prophecies • When our beliefs and expectations create reality • Beliefs & expectations influence our behavior & others’ • Pygmalion effect – person A believes that person B has a particular characteristic – person B may begin to behave in accordance with that characteristic 2
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“You see, really and truly … the difference between a lady and a flower girl is not how she behaves but how she’s treated. I shall always be a flower girl to Professor Higgins because he always treats me as a flower girl, and always will …” -- Eliza Doolittle Studies of the Self-fulfilling Prophecy • Rosenthal & Jacobson – went to a school and did IQ tests with kids – told teachers that the test was a “spurters” test – randomly selected several kids and told the teacher they were spurters – did another IQ test at end of year – spurters showed significant improvements in their IQ scores b/c of their teacher’s expectations of them Outline • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense Self and other -- the fundamental attribution error • Other -- Attractiveness -- First impressions & thin slices -- the Pygmalion effect • Groups 3
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How do we think about human groups? • Us vs. them • Stereotypes Categories • Humans and other animals accumulate information about categories of objects • This information allows us to respond adaptively to novel instances, and is essential for survival We also categorize people • Men vs. women • Child vs. adolescents vs. adults ..
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