class17 - Outline Self and other Why do we like others? •...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline Self and other Why do we like others? • Proximity “mere exposure effect” • Similarity • Attractiveness • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense • Self and other -- the fundamental attribution error • Other • Groups Attractiveness Bias – physically attractive people are rated higher on intelligence, competence, sociability, morality – studies • teachers rate attractive children as smarter, and higher achieving • adults attribute cause of unattractive child’ s misbehavior to personality, attractive child’ s to situation • judges give longer prison sentences to unattractive people 1 How do we form impressions? How do we form impressions? 1. The power of first impressions 2. First impressions are fast: Thin slices – Kelley’s study • students had a guest speaker • before the speaker came, half got a written bio saying speaker was “very warm”, half got bio saying speaker was “rather cold” • “very warm” group rated guest more positively than “rather cold” group -- teaching -- personality ratings -- Gaydar Self-fulfilling Prophecies What effects do our perceptions of other people actually have on other people? • When our beliefs and expectations create reality • Beliefs & expectations influence our behavior & others’ • Pygmalion effect – person A believes that person B has a particular characteristic – person B may begin to behave in accordance with that characteristic 2 “You see, really and truly … the difference between a lady and a flower girl is not how she behaves but how she’s treated. I shall always be a flower girl to Professor Higgins because he always treats me as a flower girl, and always will …” -- Eliza Doolittle Studies of the Self-fulfilling Prophecy • Rosenthal & Jacobson – went to a school and did IQ tests with kids – told teachers that the test was a “spurters” test – randomly selected several kids and told the teacher they were spurters – did another IQ test at end of year – spurters showed significant improvements in their IQ scores b/c of their teacher’s expectations of them Outline • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense • Self and other -- the fundamental attribution error • Other -- Attractiveness -- First impressions & thin slices -- the Pygmalion effect • Groups 3 How do we think about human groups? • Us vs. them • Stereotypes We also categorize people • • • • • • • • • Men vs. women Child vs. adolescents vs. adults .. Whites vs. blacks vs. asians … Lawyers vs. doctors … Jews vs. Catholics … Straight vs. gay … Americans vs. Europeans … Californians vs. New Yorkers … Yale students vs. Harvard students … Categories • Humans and other animals accumulate information about categories of objects • This information allows us to respond adaptively to novel instances, and is essential for survival This is not necessarily a bad thing Stereotypes are often positive Stereotypes tend to be accurate But … 4 But there are problems 1. Not always accurate -- confirmation bias with stereotypes But there are problems 2. Moral problems -- people should be judged as individuals, not as group members -- debates over profiling But there are problems 1. Not always accurate -- confirmation bias with stereotypes -- misleading data from media But there are problems 2. Moral problems -- negative stereotypes have all sorts of bad effects -- e.g., stereotype threat 5 MATH TEST MATH TEST NAME: _________ NAME: _________ RACE: _________ You have 90 minutes to answer the following questions. Good luck! You have 90 minutes to answer the following questions. Good luck! MATH TEST Studying stereotypes • 3 levels of stereotypes in today’s research – public NAME: _________ SEX: _________ You have 90 minutes to answer the following questions. Good luck! • what we say to others about a group – private • what we consciously think about a group, but don’t say to others – implicit • unconscious mental associations guiding our judgments and actions without our conscious awareness 6 Implicit Stereotypes • Use of priming: subject might not know stereotype is being activated, can’t work to suppress it • flash pictures of Black vs. White faces subliminally • give incomplete words like “hos_____,” Who cares? (what difference can a fraction of a second make?) Implicit Stereotypes • Use of priming: subject might not know stereotype is being activated, can’t work to suppress it • flash pictures of Black vs. White faces subliminally • give incomplete words like “hos_____,” subjects seeing Black make “hostile,” seeing White make “hospital” Also … implicit attitudes play a role in difficult “judgment calls” 7 Implicit Stereotypes • Devine’s automaticity theory – Everyone holds stereotypes – these stereotypes are automatically activated whenever we come into contact with individuals – we have to actively push them back down if we don’t wish to act in a prejudiced way. – Overcoming prejudice is possible, but takes work Summary • Self -- Everyone notices you -- You are terrific -- What you do makes sense • Self and other -- the fundamental attribution error • Other -- Attractiveness -- First impressions & thin slices -- the Pygmalion effect • Groups -- Stereotypes 8 Electroencephalogram (EEG) Sleep (and dreams) • Electrodes placed on the scalp provide a gross record of the electrical activity of the brain • EEG recordings are a rough index of psychological states EEG Waves of Wakefulness • Awake, but nonattentive - large, regular alpha waves • Awake and attentive - low amplitude, fast, irregular beta waves 9 Stages of Sleep • Sleep stage 1 - brief transition stage when first falling asleep • Stages 2 through 4 (slowwave sleep) - successively deeper stages of sleep • Characterized by an increasing percentage of slow, irregular, highamplitude delta waves Summary: 2 types of sleep Slow-wave/quiet sleep -- eyes drift separately and slowly -- immobile and hard to wake up REM sleep -- active cortex -- EEGs similar to waking -- paralyzed, except for eyes -- erections in men -- Dreams Stages of Sleep • Upon reaching stage 4 and after about 80 to 100 minutes of total sleep time, sleep lightens, returns through stages 3 and 2 • REM sleep emerges, characterized by EEG patterns that resemble beta waves of alert wakefulness – muscles most relaxed – rapid eye movements occur – dreams occur • Four or five sleep cycles occur in a typical night’ s sleep less time is spent in slow-wave, more is spent in REM What is sleep for? • Restoration theory - body wears out during the day and sleep is necessary to put it back in shape -- growth-producing hormone -- restoration of brain and other organs • Preservation and protection theory - sleep emerged in evolution to preserve energy and protect during the time of day when there is little value and considerable danger 10 Sleep Disorders • Somnambulism - sleepwalking • Nightmares - frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM • Night terrors - sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occur during slow-wave sleep • Narcolepsy - overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up • Sleep apnea - failure to breathe when asleep Dreams Sleep Disorders • Somnambulism - sleepwalking • Nightmares - frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM • Night terrors - sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occur during slow-wave sleep • Narcolepsy - overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up • Sleep apnea - failure to breathe when asleep • Some interesting side-effects of ambien To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there’s the rub; For in that sleep of death what dreams may come when we have shuffled off this mortal coil, must give us pause 11 Two philosophical questions about dreams • Am I dreaming right now? • Can I be immoral in a dream? True dreams versus Sleep thought – true dream - vivid, detailed dreams consisting of sensory and motor sensations experienced during REM – sleep thought - lacks vivid sensory and motor sensations, is more similar to daytime thinking, and occurs during slow-wave sleep Two philosophical questions about dreams • Am I dreaming right now? NO • Can I be immoral in a dream? NOT USUALLY Facts about dreams • Everyone dreams • 3-4 times a night • Fragile memories 12 What do people dream about? What do people dream about? • Hill’ s 50,000 dream reports; dreambank.net, etc. -- Most dreams are bad (more misfortune, more negative emotions) -- Physical aggression (more in tribal societies) (more in men) (more in Americans) -- What do people WANT to dream about? Women: Romance and adventure Men: Sex with strangers -- How many dreams are actually sexual? About 10% -- What is the most common dream? Being naked? Flying? Falling? Dreams and REM Sleep • What are true dreams for? • Freudian theories? • Side effect of memory consolidation 13 What makes us laugh? A first guess: “We laugh when there is incongruity between what we expect and what actually happens, unless the outcome is frightening” Laughter Typical prelaugh comments (=90%) • • • • • • • • • I’ll see you guys later Look, it’s Andre! Are you sure? I know! How are you? I try to lead a normal life Does anyone have a rubber band? It wasn’t you? We can handle this BUT: -- doesn’ t explain why incongruity causes laughter -- most incongruity doesn’t cause laughter -- a lot of laughter isn’t caused by incongruity “Humorous” prelaugh comments (=10%) Poor boy looks just like his father You smell like you’ve had a good workout Did you find that in your nose? [reference to dormitory food] He has a job holding back skin in the operating room 14 Some facts about laughter 1. It is social and communicative -- Involuntary noise-making -- Contagious (laugh tracks, children) Some facts about laughter 2. It is shared with other primates -- laughing-like sounds in monkeys when they attack a common enemy -- laughing-like sounds in chimpanzees when they tickle each other Q: What is tickling? A: Touching parts of the body in a mock attack Laughter as a signal of mock aggression and collective aggression? Mock aggression (tickling, teasing, insults, kidding around) Collective aggression (mob assault, executions) -- social bonding (Plato), often against a common enemy 15 Ingredients of humor Tragedy is when I cut my finger. Tragedy is when I cut my finger. Comedy is when you fall into an open sewer and die. Why can’t we tickle ourselves? (but some can!) 1. No surprise; no mock-aggression 2. General deadening of self-stimulation • A target, a person or institution, who experiences some harm. It can be an enemy, but also a friend, or even yourself • The harm should not be so serious that it elicits strong negative emotions such as fear, grief, or pity • The harm is often of a social nature, sometimes involving sex or scatology--banana peel, pie in face, pants falling down, etc. • Some level of surprise Reading Response • Generate an interesting and testable hypothesis about either (a) dreams or (b) laughter 16 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course ECON 100B taught by Professor Wood during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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