Evoked+Potentials

Evoked+Potentials - 125:315 BME MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS...

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125:315 BME MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS SPRING 2011 EVOKED POTENTIALS Instructor: Rob Toth ( [email protected] )
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Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 3 I a. BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................... 3 I b. ORIGINS OF EEG ........................................................................................................................ 3 I c. COLLECTION AND APPLICATIONS OF EEG .................................................................................... 4 I d. PRINCIPAL HUMAN EEG PLOTS ................................................................................................... 4 II. OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................... 5 III. MATERIALS AND METHODS ............................................................................................................ 6 III a. REQUIRED MATERIALS ......................................................................................................... 6 III b. COMPUTER SETUP ............................................................................................................... 6 III c. SUBJECT SETUP .................................................................................................................... 7 III d. MEASUREMENT & DATA COLLECTION ................................................................................... 8 IV. DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................. 9 IV a. CALCULATION OF α AND β RHYTHM AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY ............................................ 9 IV b. ARTIFACT ELIMINATION (FILTERING) ...................................................................................... 10 IV c. FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM (FFT) ........................................................................................... 10 IV d. HEMISPHERIC COMPARISON (SPECTRAL ANALYSIS) ................................................................. 11 V. LAB REPORT ................................................................................................................................. 13 V a. INTRODUCTION (To be done as a group) 10 points ............................................................ 13 V b. METHODOLOGY (To be done as a group) 10 points ........................................................... 13 V c. RESULTS (To be done as a group) 20 points ....................................................................... 13 V d. DISCUSSION (To be done individually) 35 points ................................................................ 14 V e. CONCLUDING REMARKS (To be done individually) 10 points .............................................. 14 V f. REFERENCES (To be done as a group) 5 points ................................................................... 14 V g. FORMATTING 10 points ................................................................................................... 14
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I. INTRODUCTION I a. BACKGROUND Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological investigation technique used to record bioelectric activity of the brain at the scalp. It is a non-invasive method that acquires measures of instantaneous activities within the cerebral hemispheres (in particular in the cortex). Computerized versions of EEG have permitted new developments in frequency analysis, cartography, and spatial-temporal resolution of the brain. With limited, easy to use equipment that implicates non- invasive recording techniques, the EEG is without a doubt the most popular technique used in clinical psychophysiology. Still, it encompasses a variety of constraints that can make usage difficult. For example, electrodes must be placed on the head, and while some are painless, all generally require the use of a fixation device to restrict the subject from moving (unless you have has access to telemetry). In addition, the recording is sensitive to artifacts produced from surrounding equipment, such as video monitors and any nearby metal that influences the electromagnetic environment. Despite these constraints, EEG analysis from both qualitative and quantitative approaches provides information about fluctuations in awareness associated with variable attention focus during a task. Inter-hemispheric relationships are particularly interesting elements to consider. Research has shown that the left, “verbal”, hemisphere is associated with positive affect while the right, “spatial”, hemisphere is associated with negative affect. At the neuron level, brain function can be detected as variations in potential due to ionic changes that occur in order to cross membranes. When an extra-cellular electrode is placed on any point of the head, it records the sum of electric activity produced by surrounding cells. In human EEG studies, electrodes on the scalp record variations of potential that correlate primarily to the activity of the cortex below.
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