Biology 1201 Test 2

Biology 1201 Test 2 - Biology1201 05:27 ChemicalReactions

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 Biology 1201 05:27 Chemical Reactions occur anytime two or more atoms, ions, or molecules collide in such a way that they  produce a new substance Laws of Thermodynamics First Law:  energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only converted from one  form to the other Second Law: when converting energy from one form to another, the amount of useful  energy decreases Types of Chemical Reactions Spontaneous: can occur without an outside help (energy) Gives off energy.  Exergonic Non-spontaneous: can occur only with outside help (energy) Take in energy (ADP).   Endergonic Free Energy: energy that is free and available to do work                     The amount of energy when/for reactions/processes occur Changes in Free Energy ΔG=ΔH – TΔS G = free energy H = Enthalpy T = Temperature (K) S = Enthropy (measure of disorder) Living vs. Non-Living Systems Living Non-Living
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Highly organized High energy Occur very fast Less Organization (enthropy) Lower Energy States (down hill) Occur very slowly External Energy Source: The sun Organic Catalysts Enzymes Enzymes Proteins (almost all) Larger globular proteins All levels of structure Enzyme Function Organic catalyst Speed up reaction rate, but not used up By lowering activation energy True for any catalyst Very specific- one specific enzyme catalyzes one specific enzyme
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Enzyme Activity Enzyme +substrate(reactants)            enzyme substrate complex(lower activation  energy)            enzyme product complex           enzyme + product induced-fit model the substance binds to the active site on enzyme thus alters the shape of the enzyme ex: baseball glove and ball : created a fit that promotes the reaction Competitive inhibition Turning enzyme on and off Inhibitor binds to the active site and blocks access to the active site Just sits in active site blocking enzyme from getting in Non-Competitive Inhibition Inhibitor binds to a side other than the active site and alters the shape of the active site Enzyme cant get in active site Allosteric Inhibition Allosteric- other shape Enzyme alters between active and inactive forms Inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site and stabilizes one shape of the  enzyme(inactive shape) Inactive form of enzyme : stabilized by inhibitor Active form of enzyme : stabilized by inhibitor
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Cells The minimum organization of living matter Cell Membrane models: The outer covering Plasma membrane or cell membrane Same model applies to all membranes Fluid: mosaic model Phospholipid bilayer with a mosaic of associated proteins Fluid: nothing is tightly bonded to each other Cell coat
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Biology 1201 Test 2 - Biology1201 05:27 ChemicalReactions

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