Colemwangi vandrea compare and contrast summer 2018.edited.docx

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COMPARE AND CONTRAST GARNER AND ROGERS PAPER 1 Running Head: COMPARE AND CONTRAST GARNER AND ROGERS PAPER 1 Compare and Contrast Garner and Rogers Paper Vandrea Cole-Mwangi Azusa Pacific University UNRS 306 Theoretical Framework in Nursing Prof. Joni Knapp August 21, 2018 Compare and Contrast Garner and Rogers paper Nurses have always been guided by a set of concepts that have been developed from scientific evidence and data called nursing theories. These theories provide nurses with approaches and strategies that they can use to perform their duty of providing health services effectively. Apart from relying on nursing theories alone to provide better healthcare, nurses have adopted the use of non-nursing theories which are not based on the nursing practice. Non-nursing theories are usually adopted to assist in the management of different kinds of illnesses and diseases for both patients and their families. This paper focuses on both the nursing theory of Martha Rogers and
the non-nursing theory of Howard Gardner. Similarities and differences of the theories, regarding concepts, and how they are applied are also discussed. The Science of Unitary Human Beings History of Theorist Martha Rogers was an American nurse who came up with the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She was born in 1914 and passed on in 1994. Her theory was a collection of ideas that she elaborated deeply in her book. Apart from being a nurse, she was a researcher, author and a theorist (Watson & Smith, 2002). She was honored into the Hall of Fame of the American Nurses Association in 1996. History of Theory, Origin, and Evolution The Science of Unitary Human Beings was developed in the middle of the twentieth century, but it has not lost its relevance to this day. This nursing theory was designed to introduce a way of viewing unitary human beings (Rogers, 2011). Rogers was motivated by the fact that a unitary person and his or her environment are a single thing. Rogers was motivated by the fact that a unitary person and his or her environment form a single unit. Other theories have emerged from this theory. They include the perspective rhythm model, the theory of creativity by Alligood, actualization, and empathy, self-transcendence model which was proposed by Reed, and the model of health as expanding consciousness by Neuman (Watson & Smith, 2002). Concepts of the Theory Rogers' theory is made up of eight concepts: patterns, openness, energy field, homeodynamic principles, integrality, helicy, resonance, and pan-dimensionality (Rogers, 2011). Rogers pointed out that living and non-living things have an energy field that is central. It is through this energy field that the environment and people can be perceived as irreducible wholes. She further stated that these energy fields vary in density, extent, and intensity without end. Another concept that Rogers talked about is openness. In this sense, the environmental and the human fields continuously exchange energy. Energy flow between the fields is not inhibited in any way by barriers or boundaries. The field gets its identity from the pattern which is an abstraction. She

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