scan0003 - 19. In 1944, twenty-nine reindeer were moved to...

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Unformatted text preview: 19. In 1944, twenty-nine reindeer were moved to uninhabited St. Matthew Island, AK as a potential food source for the US. Coast Guard. By 1963, the reindeer population increased to 6,000, but declined precipitously to 42 only three years later. What was tl gonclusion of the ecologists that investigated the reindeer population dynamics? Density independent factors were the primary cause of the decline. B) Density dependent factors were the primary cause of the decline. C) No widely accepted cause has been identified. 20. Two-thirds (2/3) of anthropogenic methane (CH4) is produced by agriculture. Identify the source(s) of the remaining one-third (1/3). \ é) Combustion of fossil fuels and coal mining B) Ultra-violet (UV) irradiation striking the ozone (03) layer C) Seasonal melting and freezing of high altitude glaciers D) Deciduous plants E) Global circulation cells / convection currents 21. Data from the Mauna Loa Observatory. Hawaii indicates that the Pacific ocean is becoming more acidic. Why do marine ecologists find this pH trend worrisome? A) A corresponding population increase in tertiary predators will decrease biodiversity Potential decline in phytoplankton ) Rise in sea levels D) Decreasing levels of dissolved oxygen (02) E) Change in ocean currents Version B Page 6 22 . A. 4-_ . if ~ v. - is; . Clown fish feed safely on algae that grow on porsonous sea anenomes. The relationship between the fish and anenome can best be described as... (Image courtesy of Wikipedia.) L19 mutualism. B) predatory. C) commensalism. D) parasitism. E) amensalism. 23. Select the best definition of ecology. A) Variety and distribution among living things. B) Description of an organism's lifestyle or way of "earning" a living. C) A series of replacements of community members until a final state is reached. D The interactive collection of all the world's ecosystems. ( E) Interactions between living things and their environment. 24. A trophic level is a(n)... A) measure of niche success. {3)} energy transfer step. C) reproductive strategy. D) efficiency rate. E) community interaction. 25. Why are arid regions and deserts found at both 30°N and 30°S of the equator. ./ \~ . . . . . . ‘ A A Circulation cell of hot dry air descends and carries morsture away. ) Mountain ranges create rain shadows at these latitudes. C) Deserts retain the majority of the solar heat because of a lack of plant life. D) The angle of the sun‘s rays are particularly intense at 30°N and 30°S. E) The rocky soil at 30°N and 30°S does not absorb water. Version B Page 7 26. As you drive up Mt. Charleston, the changes in the ecological communities are analogous to the changes... 3;) during different seasons. in biomes at different latitudes. C) during primary succession. D) across a continent from east to west. 27. In the Desert Survivors series, Professor Stan Smith mentioned that different desert plants species tend to have a uniform distribution. This species distribution pattern would be an example of... A) competitive exclusion. B) a food web. (C) resource partitioning. D) mimicry. E) primary succession. 28. In 1926, wolves were eliminated from Yellowstone National Park. Identify the impact on th the park's biodiversity. 35 Biodiversity decreased B) Biodiversity remained unchanged C) Biodiversity increased 29. Parasites are part of every ecosystem How would you classify the impact of parasites on the host population( s)? A) Both density dependent and independent B) Neither density dependent nor independent C) Density independent factor KB) Density dependent factor 30. An increase in atmospheric water vapor (HgOv) will... contribute to an increase in global temperature. B) decrease the global temperature. C) have no effect on global climate. 31. Identify the gas with the greatest global warming potential. A) Methane (CH4) B)\ Oxygen (0-2) . C) Nitrous oxide (N20) \ ) Nitrogen (N2) E) Carbon dioxide (C02) Version B Page 8 32. In the movement of energy and nutrients through ecosystems, energy and nutrients . A) fluctuates; are digested flows; cycle C) radiates; evaporate D) stagnates; accumulate E) dissipates; stimulate 33. community ecologist would most likely be concerned with... . A)\ interactions between rhinoceroses, ticks and oxpeckers. \B’{ the relationship between sunlight, precipitation and photosynthesis. C) the genetic diversity of grizzly bears. D) the decline of Joshua trees in the Mojave desert. E) the mating ritual of the prairie chicken. 34. The current concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is... A) 936 parts per million. B) 104 parts per million. i C) 391 parts per million. 87 parts per million. E) 1,243 parts per million. 2% [w " v +4 'e lb”? 7 3 . r x: m M? 8 01 g a: 25 ,- 3w: :31, “2:2” ,_ 0.001 5%.» t: o 9- ‘.‘. 'J l '2 0 (9 A J 000001 E _I r 1988 1990 1992 1994 1 996 1 998 2000 2002 Year 15 L‘syfll'lh: 01ml I‘m-kw Laxa'u-i u‘; J.Ltle\lfl’J r» Mum .nap acumv-vius s, 0 Identify a logical conclusion for the population data in the figure above. A) Both animals have a greater reproductive success when their populations are high. B) Lemmings and stoats are dependent upon one another for survival. Fluctuations in the stoat population are independent of the lemming population. D Stoats prey on lemmings. ) Lemmings and stoats share the same habitat and niche. Version B Page 9 36. In 1859, wild European rabbits were released in Australia to provide game for sport hunting. Identify the model that best fits the change in the rabbit population during the following decade. ® Exponential B) Logistic C) Arithmetic D) Linear E) Parabolic 37. Identify the animal that has increasingly become a predator of young desert tortoises. A); Raven 13) Domestic cat C) Dog D) Flammulated owl E) Scorpion 38. The Venus flytrap is a plant that can capture and digest small insects. The flytrap is a... V5,)" producer and a secondary consumer. B) both a primary and secondary consumer. C) a secondary consumer and tertiary consumer. D) producer. E) tertiary consumer. 39. Several weeks ago, wild fires in Texas burned thousands of acres. What term do ecologists use to describe the regeneration of an ecosystem alter a fire? A) Niche progression B) Habitat rehabilitation C) Ecosystem recovery QED Secondary succession E) Succession of primary producers 40. Invasive species are a problem after an ecological disruption. Identify a particularly negative outcome due to the establishment of an invasive species. A) Overcrowding \ B' Exclusion of native species B) Unbalanced nutrient cycles D) Inbreeding E) Increased predation Version B Page 10 41. Louis Pasteur (ca 1859) designed an experiment to test the hypothesis that life arose from non-living substances. He used glass flasks with S-shaped necks that contained a sterile nutrient broth. Pasteur's treatments included, 1) breaking off the S-shaped neck and, 2) briefly tipping flasks with intact necks on their sides. What was the control for this experiment? A) B) o D)» E? 42. Flasks with a U-shaped neck Open flasks filled with sterile broth Flasks without any broth Flasks sitting straight up with intact necks Flasks containing unsterile broth In the Desert Simvivors series, Professor Frank van Breukelen classified the Mojave red- spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) as an anuran. What is an anuran? A),; C) D) E) Amphibians without a tail in the adult stage. Amphibians that live in hot, dry climates. Amphibians that consume their skin as they shed. Amphibians that give birth to live young. Amphibians that do not require water for reproduction. 43. (flow do researchers identify pregnant female desert tortoises? . A} dB) C) D) E) Via X—ray Pregnant females remain in burrows longer Weight increase Pregnant females have softer shells Pregnancy hormones in the blood and saliva 44. The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and former Vice President, Albert Gore. Why were they awarded the Peace Prize? A) B) AC) 1@ E) Stated that increasing education levels results in less conflict, Civil strife and better health Promoted international diplomacy to resolve conflict Emphasized the use of nonviolence to gain fundamental human rights Raised awareness of potential conflict due to diminishing natural resources and migration Encouraged the use of sustainable economic practices to maintain peace in underdeveloped countries Version B Page I l 45. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone (03) layer. Identify a common industriz [use for these compounds A) Refrigerants P) Artificial sweeteners C) Ceramics D) Component of microprocessors E) Lubricants 46. 4:: (-I 1‘1Tfil'::l£:’- Lcunm’ :a: rI-UPJII'.‘ n '2:nu,"n.‘1‘r cum- 1):, Identify the secondary consumer. A) Sun B) Seaweed (1) C) Shark (4) D) \ Snail (2) "QB/l” Hogfish (3) 47. Ireland and Nova Scotia, Canada are both located at the same latitude (51°N) in the Atlantic ocean. Why is the climate of Nova Scotla so much colder than that of Ireland? LAJ) Ocean currents B) Rain shadow effect C) Excessive cloud coverage D) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west E) Melting glaciers Version B Page 12 48. 49. 50. ,/’\ £9) Identify the biome that is frequently found between forests and deserts with precipitatio ranging from 25 to 100 cm per year (10 to 39 inches). Herbivores and associated predatory carnivores are commonly found in this biome. A) Wm Grassland C) Chaparral D) Mountain—glaeiers E) Taiga The climate model mentioned in the audio report, Outlook Bleak for Joshua Trees (NPF Feb 4, 2008) predicted that Joshua trees could be extinct in... A) 10 to 20 years. BD 50 to 100 years. C) 3 to 5 years. D) more than 500 years. E) 100 to 500 years. Identify the conclusion of the Yosemite National Park small mammal survey presented ir. class. (Moritz et al. Science 322 10 Oct 2008') A) There was an increase in amensalistic and a decrease in commensalistic relationships. The rate of extinction among small mammals remained unchanged throughout the 20‘h century. Half of the small mammals surveyed had migrated to a higher elevation. Biodiversity increased due to the preservation of keystone predators. Secondary succession had almost reached the climate community. B) D) E) Version B Page 13 ...
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scan0003 - 19. In 1944, twenty-nine reindeer were moved to...

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