Sport Psychology Lecture 6-1 I. What is reinforcement? II. Positive and negative ways to influence behavior III. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards IV. Ways to increase intrinsic motivation B. Reinforcement I. Positive reinforcement 1. The process by which doing something results in a pleasant consequence 2. Example: kids learn when they win the game they can go celebrate at McDonald’s II. Negative reinforcement 1. The removal of a consequence that increases the frequency of a targeted behavior 2. Example: making 90% of front end free throws, don't have to run wind sprints after practice III. Positive reinforcement is healthy 1. Athletes know when they are wrong 2. Doesn't always work (intrinsic reasons), use negative reinforcement or punishment C. Punishment I. The process by which people are reinforced to avoid a behavior due to the unpleasant consequences that result from that behavior 1. Goal of punishment is to decrease the frequency of a targeted behavior II. Type I punishment: a response is punished by adding an aversive stimulus (a brief electric shock, for example) D. Keys to Positive Reinforcement I. Choose effective reinforcers 1. Both intrinsic (pride, enjoyment) and extrinsic depending on needs II. Select behaviors to reward: not always winning 1. Reward successful approximations (shaping): getting close to the desired results but not entirely there yet: “keep doing it, you're getting there!” 2. Reward performance (not outcome): “one of your best performances ever!”
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to
access the rest of the document.