5.24 Treatment and Therapy

5.24 Treatment and Therapy - May 24, 2011 Treatment and...

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May 24, 2011 Treatment and Therapy What to do about mental illness? Two major schools of though 1. Biological/chemical-drug treatment, shock treatment 2. “Talk” Therapy or behavior therapy Often most effective when the two are combined Going beyond mental illness to mental well-being Biological Approaches Early approaches -primitive man: cut holes in the skull to release evil spirits. Some people could survive trepanning, most just died. -18 th -19 th century: American doctor Benjamin Rush advocated physical and perceptual restraints, as well as “spinning” and cold water baths More Modern times -1930’s-1970’s: Egas Moniz was the Nobel prize winner for pioneering the frontal lobotomy. The frontal loves are severed using an icepick-like instrument inserted through the eye sockets. Leads to lethargy. 50,000 in US alone. -1940’s-today: Electroconvulsive therapy-shock causes convulsions 25-120 seconds long. ECT works very quickly, but mechanism is still unclear. Patients suffer temporary memory loss of recent experiences, mostly recovered over time. Despite serious side effects, it is highly effective in treating severe depression that has been resistant to all other treatment. Modern Treatment -TMA: just as TMS can be used to temporarily ‘knockout’ the function of brain areas and allow for causal inferences in research, it can be used therapeutically. TMS over the left frontal love has been approved for use in severe depression. -DBS: deep brain stimulation with electrodes. Successfully used in Parkinson’s, but also now experimental treatment for severe OCD. Pharmacological Approaches Antipsychotics -schizophrenia -haloperidol: dopamine antagonist; decreases positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Can also lead to ‘pseudo-Parkinson’s’ (tremors) and tardive dyskenesia (motor tics) -clozapine: acts on dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin; works on BOTH positive and negative symptoms. No motor tics or pseudo Parkinson’s, but can cause serious seizures and cardiovascular disorders Antidepressants -mood disorders
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course PSYCH 110 taught by Professor Finkel during the Fall '08 term at Northwestern.

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5.24 Treatment and Therapy - May 24, 2011 Treatment and...

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