5.3 Motivation and Emotion

5.3 Motivation and Emotion - May 3 2011 Motivation and...

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May 3, 2011 Motivation and Emotion Hot Processes vs. Cold Cognition Often there has been a tension between “reason” and emotion-but this is wrong. Emotions are adaptive for survival and actually facilitate decision making. We can easily make intelligence machines-but have done very poorly in attempting to make affective or emotional machines. “Basic” Emotions structuralist idea, but functionalist basis-IS there a set of emotions that “basic” or primary? Darwin thought so. Basic emotion characteristics: - functional for survival -emerge early in life -universal across all human cultures (so should communication) -specific physiological states/experiences Basic emotions and their adaptive natures: -fear-avoid danger -anger-express dominance -sadness-stop and rethink -joy-continue action -disgust-avoid bad food -? Interest ? –exploration (no facial expression) -? Surprise ?-attend (expression, but doesn’t indicate good or bad) -? Love ?-bonding (no facial expression) Non-basic/secondary emotions also exist and are important for social relations-guilt, embarrassment, shame, etc. Seen Early in Life Babies can perceive and MIMIC basic emotional expressions at birth -spontaneously SHOW joy, interest, disgust and distress -by 10-12 months, spontaneously show all the basics -by 2 years have developed self-awareness and begin to show social emotions (must pass mirror test) -empathy is seen by 2-but egocentric empathy is until age 4-6 Universal Expression in Faces Darwin was the first to think about this ( The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals ) Ekman’s studies: -“her child has died” vs. “she has been given a gift of a new boat” with photos of white faces -People from all countries and cultures can pick the matching face. (universal language) Culture does make a difference in “display rules”-when it is appropriate to display emotion -Asians vs. North American: very different when watch emotional movie with others (Asians inhibit, Americans amplify), but same when watching alone.
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