Orgo 1 - 1 Bonding Shapes of Molecules(1.1-1.7 Electronic...

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1. Bonding & Shapes of Molecules (1.1-1.7) Electronic Structure of Atoms - Electrons do not move freely in the space around a nucleus, but rather are confined to regions of space called principal energy levels. Each shell can contain up to 2n 2 electrons, where n is the number of the shell. Electrons in higher numbered shells are farther from the nucleus and are held less strongly to it these electrons are said to be higher in energy. An orbital is a region of space that can hold 2 electrons. - Every atom has an infinite number of possible electron configurations, but we are only concerned with the ground-state electron configuration (lowest energy). Orbitals fill in order of increasing energy from lowest to highest. Each orbital can hold up to two electrons with their spins paired. When orbitals of equivalent energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill them completely, then we add one electron to each equivalent orbital before we add a second electron to any one of them. Shells are most stable when they are half full or full. - Outer shell electrons are called valence electrons, as they are in the valence shell. A Lewis structure shows the symbol of the element, surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom of that element. A Lewis structure shows the symbol of the element, surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom of that element. Because of the differences in number and kind of valence shell orbitals available to elements of the second and third periods, significant differences exist in the covalent bonding of oxygen and sulfur and of nitrogen and phosphorous. Lewis Model of Bonding - The chemical inertness of the noble gases indicates a high degree of stability of the electron configurations of these elements. The octet rule is the tendency among atoms of group 1-7 elements to react in ways that achieve an outer shell of eight valence electrons. An anion is an atom or group of atoms bearing a negative charge where as a cation bears a positive charge. - An ionic bond is a chemical bond resulting from the electrostatic attraction of an anion and a cation. A covalent bond is results from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons. Ionic bonds usually form between a metal and a nonmetal. When two nonmetals or a metalloid and a nonmetal combine the bond is usually
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