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Orgo 4 - 4 Alkenes and Alkynes Structure and Shapes of...

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4. Alkenes and Alkynes Structure and Shapes of Alkenes and Alkynes - An unsaturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon that has fewer hydrogen’s bonded to carbon than an alkane has. Alkenes contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds, and alkynes contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Arenes are compounds containing one or more benzene rings. In many arts of the world with vast reserves of natural gas, the major process for the production of ethylene (simplest alkyne) is thermal cracking of the small quantities of ethane extracted from natural gas. In thermal cracking, a saturated hydrocarbon is converted to an unsaturated hydrocarbon plus H 2 . - Using VSEPR we know there is 120 ° bond angles about each carbon in a double bond. A carbon-carbon double bond consists of one sigma and one pi bond. Each carbon of the double bond uses its three sp 2 hybrid orbitals to form sigma bonds to three atoms. The unhybridized 2p atomic orbitals, which lie perpendicular to the plane created by the axes of the three-sp2 hybrid orbitals, combine to form the pi bond of the carbon-carbon double bond. Rotation about a carbon-carbon double bond is severely restricted, where as rotation about a carbon-carbon single bond is relatively free.
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