Lecture 1 – Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Lecture 1 – Central Dogma of Molecular...

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Lecture 1 – Central Dogma of Molecular Biology The Central Dogma of biology refers to the way that genetic information is  stored and retrieved in a living cell. It began as DNA which is then transferred  to RNA and is then used to make proteins.  DNA functions as the information storage molecule and this formation is read  out into RNA molecules. In other words, DNA is used as a template to for  RNA which is then translated into proteins.  Genotype refers to the genetic make up of a specific tissue, organ, protein etc.  Phenotype refers to the appearance given off by the genotype. Ex. Red hair is a  phenotype. DNA is read in groups of 3 nucleotides. This group of 3 is called a codon.  Each codon pertains to a specific amino acid. The human genome is composed 
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Unformatted text preview: to 3.2 billion base pairs coding for 25000 genes. Proteins are active workers in the cell. They catalyze, create structures and assist. They are composed of amino acids. An amino acid is composed of an amino group, a carboxylic acid group and a side chain. The amino and carboxylic acid can be on one side or the other. Only the L form (where the acid is on the RIGHT) exists to form proteins . The properties of the side chain determine the proteins character. The major properties are the following: Hydrophobic and hydrophilic (polar/non polar), physical size, and ability to form hydrogen bonds. All of these factors determine how the protein folds. Note: Methionine and Cysteine are the only amino acids that have a sulfur group....
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course SCIENCE 2820 taught by Professor Brandl during the Spring '11 term at UWO.

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