Chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Memory(p.294 Memory refers to...

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Chapter 8: Memory (p.294) - Memory refers to processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information. MEMORY AS INFORMATION PROCESSING - Herman Ebbinghaus (1885) and Sir Francis Galton (1883); rate which info forgotten, memories for personal events - Encoding : refers to getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes o E.g. keystrokes translated into code for computer to understand and process - Storage: involves retaining information over time (must be filed and saved) - Retrieval: way to pull information out of storage when want to use it - We routinely forget and distort information, may “remember” events that never occurred. Memory is dynamic, complex A Three-Component Model - ***p. 295 Sensory input sensory registers encoding attention working (short-term) memory;  rehearsal encoding retrieval long-term memory Sensory Memory - Sensory memory : holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized. - Sensory registers: initial information processors - Iconic store: visual sensory register o Fraction of a second, George Sperling 1960 experiment, tone helped, but delay tone didn’t - Auditory sensory register = echoic store , lasts longer than iconic memory (complete for 2 seconds, partial after) Short-Term/Working Memory - Short-term memory: holds information we are conscious of at any given time (selective attention enters it, most info fades) - Aka working memory , constantly codes and “works on” info Mental representations. - Once info leaves sensory memory, must be represented to be retained in short-term and later long-term memory - Mental representations (memory codes) can be: o Mental image (visual encoding) o Sound code (phonological encoding) o Meaning of stimulus (semantic encoding) - Physical actions = code patterns of movement (motor encoding) - Coding not always corresponding to form of original stimuli (e.g. reading is not visual of letters but semantic meaning) - Harder to remember stuff sounding same, .: phonological codes important in short-term memory Capacity and duration. - Short-term can hold limited amount of info at a time, depending on stimulus 5-9 meaningful items in short-term at a time o George Miler (1956): “the magical number 7, + / - 2” o UNITS (ie making letters into words) o Combining individual items to larger meaningful units = chunking - Without rehearsal , shelf-life of memory is 20 seconds (ie why you forget person’s name) o Simple repetition (saying phone number aloud or in head) = maintenance rehearsal o Elaborative rehearsal = focusing on meaning of info or relating to another thing we know o Both effective for active in short-term, elaborative better for long-term
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Putting short-term memory “to work”. - Items that remain on loading dock long enough get shelved to long term memory?
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