Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p.384) -...

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Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p.384) - Motivation : is the process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology - Instincts motivate much behaviour (Darwin inspired) - Instinct ( fixed action pattern ) = inherited characteristic, common to all members of species, automatically produces particular response when organism exposed to particular stimulus o William James (1890 ) proposed 36, by 1920s 1000s - Circular reasoning before, but now hereditary contributions examined for motivation (e.g. Twin / adoption studies to see how strongly heredity accounts for differences among people in many aspects of motivated behaviour, like extraversion, reading, sports, coasters) - Modern evolutionary psychologists : “psychological” motives have evolutionary underpinnings, .: adaptive significance of behaviour key o E.g. why we social? Survival advantages (sharing resources, protection, .: passed on) Homeostasis and Drive Theory - Walter Cannon (1932) – homeostasis : state of internal physiological equilibrium that body strives to maintain o Maintenance requires Sensory mechanism – detect changes in internal environment Response system – restore equilibrium Control centre – receives info from sensors and activates response (e.g. thermostat, set point ) o Regulation includes learned behaviour o Clark Hull (1943, 1951) drive theory of motivation: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives , states of internal tension that motivate to behave in ways to reduce tension E.g. hunger / thirst drives push organism into action .: reducing drives = ultimate goal of motivated behaviour Homeostatic drives for motivation applied to: hunger, thirst, body temp, weight, sleep Drive theory less now, because people increase states of arousal (skipping meals to diet, flock to tension- gathering horror movies) Incentive and Expectancy Theories - Drives internal factors “push” to action; incentives external stimuli “PULL” toward goal o E.g. good grade incentive to studying o Do more than reduce biological drive (e.g. food not just incentive because reduces hunger) o High incentive value can motivate without bio need (e.g. dessert) E.g. drug abuse - Expectancy theories include incentive value but cognitive (not classical conditioning) perspective o Motivation = Expectancy x Value theory proposes goal-directed behaviour jointly determined by: strength of person’s expectation that behaviour will lead to goal, and individual value of goal ( incentive value ) o Extrinsic motivation : activity to obtain external award / avoid punishment o Intrinsic motivation : activity for own sake (enjoyable, stimulating, etc) o Overjustification hypothesis : giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation .: external incentives can decrease motivation
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion (p.384) -...

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