Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - Chapter 16: Behaviour in a Social Context (p....

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(p. 663) - Zimbardo : “Stanford Prison Study” – behaviour not only determined by biological endowment and past learning experiences, but also by power of immediate social situation SOCIAL THINKING AND PERCEPTION Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behaviour - Attributions : judgements about the causes of our own and other people’s behaviour and outcomes o Influence subsequent behaviour / emotions (if because of A then C, vs if it was because of B) Personal vs Situational Attributions - Fritz Heider (1958) : attempts to understand why people behave typically involve . .. o Personal (internal) attributions : infer people’s behaviour caused by characteristics (Bob insulted Carl because he’s rude) o Situational (external) attributions : infer aspects of situation cause behaviour (Bob provoked) - Harold Kelly (1973) : 3 types info determine attribution o Consistency : consistent response over time? (always hates art) o Distinctiveness : distinctive, only this or for all things? (hates art vs all courses) o Consensus : how do others respond? (all students hate art vs just Kim) - When all 3 high  situational - Consistency high, other 2 low  personal - Sometimes take all this to consideration when making attributions, other times mental shortcuts making snap judgements that bias Attributional Biases - Social psychology says: immediate social environment profoundly influences behaviour - But we form negative opinions about participants because of fundamental attribution error : underestimate impact of situation and overestimate role of personal factors when explaining others’ behaviour o E.g. Fidel Castro speech o How we perceive others’ behaviour rather than own – e.g. driving “moron” “maniac” We have more info about our present Perceptual principle of figure-ground relations Others are “figure” on background standing out We are “background” and situation stands out o Not inevitable (Columbine shooting) Time to reflect, highly motivated to be careful, error reduced - Explaining self, protect self-esteem by self-serving bias : making relatively personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failures (e.g. athletes post-game) o Psychological state (e.g. depression opposite), cultural norms Culture and Attribution - Culture influences how we perceive physical AND social world - Studies suggest tendency to attribute other people’s behaviour to personal factors reflects Westernized individualism o E.g. India-US attributed causality studies - Culture affects attributions for own behaviour too o Chinese value modesty, take less credit for successful social interactions and more accepting of responsibility for failures than Americans - Also affects HOW make attributions o E.g. East Asians have holistic view of universe (compared to Westerns) .: more complex views about causes of behaviour (as everything interconnected) o E.g. Koeran vs Euro Americans
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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16: Behaviour in a Social Context (p....

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