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Test 2 - Test 2 Chapter 20The Fungi Chapter 22 Yeast Fungi...

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Test 2  15:47   Chapter 20-The Fungi                                              Chapter 22 Yeast  Fungi Fungi-Domain Eukarya Almost all fungi is multicultural Eukaryotic  Feed by absorption  Structure Mycelium: the feeding network of a fungus. THE BODY OF THE FUNGUS.  May be very large Usually underground or inside a decaying or living organism  Composed of a woven mesh of hyphae  Hyphae (singular hypha): The threadlike filaments of a fungus Tubular cell wall containing chitin  Surrounds the plasma membrane  Chitin: A structural polysaccharide of modified sugars. 
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Septa: structures which partially separate the cytoplasm inside the hyphae, founding  many fungi Spores: haploid cell which can grow directly into a hypha.  Formed to during sexual and asexual reproduction in a fungus.  Matting types must be different in order to produce genetically variable offspring.  Fungal Lifestyles Use absorption to obtain their food Three variations depending in the food type.  Saprobes: decomposers of dead material (most fungi)  Parasites: fungi which grow on living organisms (Dutch elm disease, Corn smut, athletes  foot, jock itch, Yeast infections.  Mutualists: fungi that live interdependently with photosynthetic organisms  Lichens: symbolic relationship between a fungal species and either a cyanobacteria or  unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote Mycorrhizae: symbiotic relationships between fungi and the roots of a plant  Fungi help send the plant water, minerals and nutrients.  Fungal divisions  Over 100,000 fungal species identified and more are added each year.  Five major Divisions of the Kingdom Fungi Zygote fungi- Division Zygomycota
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Named for the zygospore which has a thick cell wall  Ascomycota These divisions are based on DNA sequence data, on the presence of septa in the  fungi, and on the sexual life cycle.  Phylum- Ascomycetes= Sac fungi Sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (Sac like cases)  Ascospores found in the ascus that is located in the ascocarp.  Many parasites especially of animals  Many symbionts with plants  Classification of Fungi Phylum: Basidiomycetes= Club Fungi Include: common mushrooms, puffballs, atink horns, shelf fungi, pant-parasitic smuts  and rusts  Sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing  basidiospores  Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills  Phylum: Glomeromycetes=Arbuscular mycorrhizae (230 Species now) Associated with 90% of plant species  Deuteromycetes-Imperfect Fungi  Electic group of unclassified species  Sexual structures unknown (i.e, no flagellated spores, zygosporangia, asci, or basida),  so these haven’t been classified. 
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