BIO CHAP11

BIO CHAP11 - Chapter 11 Nucleic Acids: Information storage...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Nucleic Acids: Information storage and transmission.--- Genes are the units of heredity and are made of nucleic acid (DNA).--- Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides linked together by dehydration synthesis reactions. 3 phosphate groups sugar ATP nitrogen- containing base---Nucleotides are the building block molecules of a nucleic acid and are composed of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The sugar and phosphate groups form the nucleic acid backbone. Nucleic acid backbone has directionality (3' versus 5') If DNA were compared to a book, the sugar and phosphate groups would only be the binding of the book. The actual words, or genetic information would be contained in the nitrogenous bases. There are two families of nitrogenous bases: Pyrimidines and Purines--- Pyrimidines are nitrogenous bases characterized by a six-membered ring made up of carbon and nitrogen atoms. sugar phosphate base = cytosine sugar phosphate base = thymine Fig. 11.3---Purines are nitrogenous bases characterized by a five-membered ring fused to a six-membered ring where both rings are made up of carbon and nitrogen atoms. sugar phosphate base = adenine sugar phosphate base = guanine Fig. 11.3 Evidence that DNA is the genetic material:-During cell division the doubled DNA is divided equally between the two daughter cells-In a eukaryotic cell, the DNA content doubles prior to cell division In 1947, Erwin Chargaff from Columbia University used paper chromatography to separate the bases of the DNA from different species (fish, humans, bacteria, etc.)-Found that the base composition (number of As, Ts, Gs, Cs) varied between species-There was a relationship between the bases Chargaffs rules A = T G = C Adenine (A) = Thymine (T) Guanine (G) = Cytosine(C) Watson and Crick ( and others ) discovered the double helix Remember the structure of the monomer (nucleotide) and the polymer (single strand DNA). Rosalind Franklin 1920-1958 Gifted x-ray crystallographer Understanding the structure of DNA-Physical structure evidence Lead to the double helix model Fig. 11.5-2 strands are antiparallel -specific-base pairing complementary base pairs the key to solving puzzle => A-T and G-C pairs, explained Chargaff's rules DNA length DNA in a typical human cell is about 2...
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course BIO 1002 taught by Professor Hrinchevich during the Fall '10 term at LSU.

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BIO CHAP11 - Chapter 11 Nucleic Acids: Information storage...

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