Lecture13Part1

Lecture13Part1 - ART 1441: ART 1441: Historical Survey of...

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Unformatted text preview: ART 1441: ART 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 13 Outline Lecture 13 Absolutism under Louis XIV in France Louvre and Versailles Palace The Tiepolos and Venetian Ceiling Painting in the 18th Century Canaletto’s Venetian Vedute Pictures Absolutism under Louis XIV in Absolutism under Louis XIV in France French king Louis XIV (the “Sun King”) embodied the idea of Absolutism: “L’État, c’est moi” (“I am the State”) Divine Right Monarchy: king appointed as worldly leader by God’s will Centralization of power at the king’s court in Versailles, outside Paris Nobility reduced to status of servants to the king (eliminate opposition) France leading political power in Europe, French language, culture adopted by other European courts French Academy of Painting and Sculpture founded in 1648 Long rule of Louis XIV (ruled 1661­1715) Absolutism provided for the political and social conditions that Rigaud: Rigaud: The King’s Two Bodies Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, 1701, oil o/canvas Icon of Absolutism: Official state portrait of Louis XIV Rigaud remained for 40 years official painter to the king Louis XIV dressed in royal ermine, embroidered with fleur­de­lis (symbol of Bourbon dynasty)>only the king was allowed to wear it Air of aloofness>he was directly appointed by God Many copies produced over the years Rigaud: Rigaud: The King’s Two Bodies Interpretation by historian Louis Marin: two bodies of the king “Figure of the King”: “a real individual with knees swollen by gout, an organic body” “Figure of the Body­of­ Power”: Political principle of divine right monarchy; the State in the expression “L’État, c’est moi;” the political body: intangible, immortal Perrault and Le Brun: Perrault and Le Brun: The Louvre Claude Perrault, Louis Le Vau, and Charles Le Brun, East Façade of the Louvre, Paris, 1667­1670 Louvre today: probably the most important museum in the world Since Medieval times also the seat of government East façade (rue de Rivoli) still left unfinished in late 17th century Perrault and Le Brun: Perrault and Le Brun: The Louvre Strong classical influences Perrault: principal proponent of classical architecture at the time Le Brun: student of Poussin, founding director of the French Academy in 1648: hotbed of classical aesthetics Rhythm of façade defined by pairs of columns Roof line interrupted by classical temple pediment Perrault and Le Brun: Perrault and Le Brun: The Louvre View from the inside courtyard Stern classicism abandoned in favor of almost Baroque overtones Fountains late 20th century Perrault and Le Brun: Perrault and Le Brun: The Louvre View of the interior courtyard Perrault/Le Brun wing to the left Center: Glass Pyramid by Chinese architect I. M. Pei Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Jules Hardouin­Mansart and Charles Le Brun Aerial View of the Palace at Versailles, begun 1669 Versailles: town a few miles to the West of Paris Biggest construction site in the world at its time Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Aerial view (plan), 1668 General manager of constructions (interior and exterior): Charles Le Brun (dies 1690)>ran workshops at Versailles in a despotic manner Believed art had to follow a fixedset of rules Principal architect: Jules Hardouin­Mansart Idea of Absolutism incarnated in stone Splendor of Versailles to impress foreign dignitaries and royalty> symbol of France’s political power Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Plan of the Park, Palace, and Town of Versailles, After a 17th century drawing by François Blondel Area surrounded by a large park that was integrated in the design Structure designed around a single axis Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Courtyard of Versailles Mixture of classical stylistic references with Native French architectural models Humans dwarfed with respect to architecture Architecture, manners, court life emulated throughout Europe: Germany, Poland, Russia, etc. Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Jules Hardouin­Mansart and Charles Le Brun, Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, c. 1680 Mirrors: extremely expensive luxury good in the late 17th century A whole factory had to be built to produce the mirrors for the Galerie des Glaces Courtiers and petitioners could address the king in Galerie des Glaces during his daily walk>royal favoritism Crystal chandeliers, gilding> most expensive luxury interior conceivable [but no restrooms in original design] Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Courtiers and petitioners could address the king in Galerie des Glaces during his daily walk>royal favoritism Palace a city in itself centered on the person of the king Nobility no longer fights battles for the king, but dress him, entertain him, take care of his correspondence Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Jules Hardouin­Mansart, Royal Chapel, ceiling decorations by Antoine Coypel, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, 1698­1710 Built during the last years of Louis XIV’s rule King becomes morose and pious>orders a chapel to be attached to his palace Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Versilles famous for its gardens designed by André Le Nôtre Highly symmetric pattern Trees and shrubs precisely trimmed Nature is deliberately manipulated>French model of Garden design English garden >unkempt “nature Garden” Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles Louis XIV’s Palace at Versailles François Girardon and Thomas Rignaudin, Apollo Attended by the Nymphs, Park of Versailles, Versailles, c. 1666­1672 Numerous garden sculptures at Versailles Grottoes all the rage at the turn of the eighteenth century>location of this group Adaptation of classical sculptural prototypes to Poussin’s aesthetics Frequent references to water> Fountains, pools Mansart: Mansart: Invalides Dome Jules Hardouin­Mansart, Église de Dôme, Church of the Invalides, Paris, 1676­1706 Mansart’s monument in Paris Italian Baroque models (central plan, emphasis on dome) Seat of army administration, Napoleon’s coffin; interior decoration>Apotheosis of St. Louis (French king leading the Crusades during Middle Ages) Interior: Napoleon’s tomb, a “Baldacchino” to “frame” central altar Mansart: Mansart: Invalides Dome ...
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