Lecture14

Lecture14 - ART 1441 ART 1441 Historical Survey of the Arts...

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Unformatted text preview: ART 1441: ART 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 14 Outline Lecture 14 Characteristics of the Rococo style Rococo interior designs Antoine Watteau and fairground culture in the eighteenth century Rococo Art and the French Aristocracy: Boucher, Fragonard Rococo sculpture: Clodion Characteristics of the Characteristics of the Rococo style After the death of Louis XIV (1715) >Regency period Ideals of the age of Louis XIV: self­discipline, self­sacrifice, denial of one’s interest for the higher good (the good of the State) > the âge classique versus Rococo culture of the Regency Nobility moves from Versailles to Paris: longed for pleasure, amusement Characteristics of the Characteristics of the Rococo style Nobility builds so­called Hôtels (town houses) in Paris Pleasure, sensuality, indulgence in luxury becomes fashionable: music making, theater, fine arts play important role in lifestyle Rise of Rococo style from rocaille: “little shell,” shell decorations abound Background: dawn of the early modern age; discovery of individuality, pursuit happiness Rococo Interior Designs Rococo Interior Designs Germain Boffrand, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, 1737­ 1740 A great example of the Hôtels (town houses) designed in Paris after 1715 Centrally located in the Marais district of Paris Classically inspired Baroque facade Boffrand: Boffrand: Rococo Interior Design Germain Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise, 1737­1740, Paris (with painting by Charles­Joseph Natoire and sculpture by J. B. Lemoine) Rococo period rich in decorative programs designed specifically for one building Commissioned by Hôtel’s owner, Prince Hercule Mériadec de Soubise, for his marriage Boffrand: Boffrand: Rococo Interior Design Painting, sculptures integrated into wall paneling Gilded plaster moldings; stark contrasts with whites, blue imitating the sky Luxury good: mirrors> fashion started with Versailles Eight Spandrels: oil paintings by French academic painter Charles Natoire: History of Psyche Rare occasion of a completely preserved Rococo interior De Cuvilliés: De Cuvilli Rococo Interior Design Exterior of the Amalienburg, park of the Nymphenburg palace, Munich, early 18th century Small “pleasure” pavilion in the park of a larger residence near Munich Rich Rococo interior designed by a French artist French culture in demand across courts in Europe; model: Versailles De Cuvilliés: De Cuvilli Rococo Interior Design François de Cuvilliés, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace Park, Munich, early 18th century Mirrors (after Versailles model), crystal chandeliers, gilded plaster molding, contrast gold and white Silvery touch through mirrors Ultimate luxury statement Sumptuous, but cold atmosphere De Cuvilliés: De Cuvilli Rococo Interior Design Another view Notice the “rocaille” patterns used for stucco decorations Parisian Fairground Culture in the Parisian Fairground Culture in the Early Eighteenth Century The Foire Saint­Germain in early 18th­century Paris Sideshow with street theaters, tightrope dancers, trained animals, former actors of the Italian Comedy (Comédie italienne) pantomimes; also illegal gambling, prostitution Art sales, dispersed former assistants from Rubens workshop in Antwerp blend in Environment inspiring for Rococo painterWatteau Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Antoine Watteau, L’Indifférent, c. 1716, oil on canvas Actor on stage Costume of satin cloth Pose and title (“the indifferent one”) suggest a carefree life Watteau’s inspiration: theatrical presentations, especially street theater of the type at the Saint­ Germain fair Art form appreciated in particular by the French nobility (client base) Background: English (nature) garden Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Antoine Watteau, Gilles (Pierrot), 1721, oil on canvas Another actor portrait Italian comedy (Comédie Italienne) had a stock repertoire of roles>easily recognizable by of costume Gilles (Pierrot): melancholic dupe>white satin dress with ruff as identifying marks Other Italian actors, donkey in background Expression of melancholy appreciated by audiences Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Antoine Watteau, Return from Cythera, 1717, oil on canvas ( Louvre Version) Watteau’s most famous picture, exists in two versions Painted as a reception piece for the French Academy of Painting and Sculpture Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Watteau was “received” (admitted as an academic painter) in a genre (category) created for him (very unusual): Painter of Fête Galante Fête Galante: Scene with figures in a landscape enjoying themselves (compare: Giorgione) Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Iconography remains unclear: pilgrimage or departure from the island of Cythera by a party of sumptuously dressed members of the nobility Cythera: island of love Right: stages of courtship leading to marriage Right: swarm of cherubs in the air Theme based on a contemporary theater piece by Florent Carton Dancourt The Three Cousins (Les Trois Cousines, 1700) Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Antoine Watteau, Return from Cythera, 1718, oil on canvas (Berlin­Dahlem Version) Second version of composition, commissioned by aristocratic German collector Larger Statue of Venus to right; ship in background more pronounced; swarm of putti has disappeared Rococo art popular until outbreak of French Revolution (1789), thereafter persecuted as art of decadent and corrupt aristocracy Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Antoine Watteau, Gersaint’s Signboard, 1720, oil on canvas View of the interior of the shop of the art dealer Gersaint Initially commissioned as his shop sign Subject: Aristocratic clientele buying Rococo art Watteau: Watteau: Painter of the Fête Galante Left: Portrait of Louis XIV is boxed up Right: Dealer persuading clients to buy (hand gesture) Art dealer/gallery director, shops for art: a new phenomenon (previously only private commissions) Gersaint the first to print catalogues for his exhibitions Last picture painted by Watteau (died in his 30s) Boucher: Boucher: Frivolty for the Aristocracy François Boucher, Cupid a Captive, 1754, oil on canvas Painter to Madame Pompadour (mistress to Louis XV) A ready market: rose­colored Rococo erotica for aristocracy Here: Cupid is held captive by Venus (?) and her attendants; he is obviously enjoying himself at it Boucher: Boucher: Frivolty for the Aristocracy François Boucher, Odalisque, 1745, oil on canvas Enlightenment critic Diderot on Boucher: “This man does not pick up his brush but to show breasts and buttocks. I have no problem looking at these things, but I can’t stand that one is showing them to me… these seductive objects are contrary to the emotions of the soul due to their troubling effect on the senses.” Rococo painting existed in opposition to morally uplifting “history painting” promoted by the Academy Boucher: Boucher: A Bourgeois Breakfast François Boucher, The Breakfast, 1739, oil on canvas Sitters are members of the bourgeoisie (middle class) Mother with domestic and two daughters, hot chocolate is being served Boucher’s own family (?) Boucher: Boucher: A Bourgeois Breakfast Novelty: childhood recognized in 18th century as a distinct stage in human development (children can play, have toys, parents emotionally involved) Before: high infant mortality, children raised by nursemaids in the countryside Fashionable chinoiserie (Chinese things) and rocaille decorations Fragonard: Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Jean­Honoré Fragonard, The Great Priest Corésus Sacrificing Himself to Callirhoé, 1765, oil on canvas Fragonard wanted to be received as a history painter by the French Academy, painted picture for this purpose; for the rest of his career remained a Rococo painter Fragonard: Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Storyline: a youthful priest immolates himself in place of the young woman to his feet originally intended for sacrifice Pretends to be a classical theme, but of recent invention: Contemporary opera written by obscure French authors Roy and Destouches Fragonard’s last and only attempt at history painting; no money in it Fragonard: Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Jean­Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1766, oil on Canvas Quintessential Rococo painting; source of Fragonard’s commercial success Commission requested by one Baron de Saint­ Julien according to his specifications Fragonard: Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Saint­Julien wanted to have himself be included in a “position to observe the legs of this charming girl” Sense of irony at his own expense: receiver general of (tax) contributions from the clergy Setting: lush, moist, unkempt garden with numerous sculptures (putti, etc.) Fragonard: Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Jean­Honoré Fragonard, The Pursuit, c. 1771, oil on canvas Private commission by Mme Du Barry, mistress of Louis XV Part of the interior decoration for her chateau at Louveciennes Story of courtship in 14 pictures (four executed) Fragonard: Fragonard: The Last Great Rococo Painter Jean­Honoré Fragonard, The Surprise, c. 1771, oil on canvas Typical Rococo pictures: praise of love, sensual pleasure, carefree life of the Aristocracy in an idealized setting Rose color, statues, unkempt garden For unknown reasons, Mme Du Barry refused to accept delivery of Clodion: Clodion: Rococo Sculpture Clodion, Nymph and Satyr, c. 1775, terracotta Worked exclusively in terracotta Sent by French Academy to Rome after winning the “Rome Prize” (Prix de Rome) Influence Bernini, but infused with Rococo themes Light­hearted, decorative, erotic, frivolous, does not require great learning Specialty: table top sculptures and architectural decoration Clodion: Clodion: Rococo Sculpture Clodion, The Invention of the Balloon, 1784, terracotta Commemorative sculpture for the successful launching of the Montgolfier brothers’ first hot­air balloon in France (1783) Scientific/technical innovation presented in classical terms: putti, cherubs, Fama (personification of fame) swirling around hot air balloon Symbolic fire used as base (real hot air balloon would explode) An awkward work of art: Rococo could not accommodate the coming of the modern age and the social and technological changes it brought ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course AGRI 1001 taught by Professor Garrison during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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