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Lecture15Part1 - ART 1441 ART 1441 Historical Survey of the...

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Unformatted text preview: ART 1441: ART 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 15 Outline Lecture 15 What is the Enlightenment? The Rise of Genre Painting in 18th Century France: Greuze, Chardin The Painter to the French Queen Marie­ Antoinette: Vigée­Lebrun Portrait Painting in Satire in England: Reynolds, Gainsborough, Hogarth Voltaire’s Neighbor: Huber The World of Science: Wright of Derby What is the Enlightenment? What is the Eighteenth­century idea; defined the intellectual currents, discussions during the century; announced the coming to the modern age Enlightenment = Age of Reason Reason and not religion, superstition, myths informs human decisions, consciousness, moral attitudes Emergence of philosophes (Enlightenment thinkers and intellectuals): Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, d’Alembert, d’Holbach Advocate tolerance, freedom of opinion, law (not arbitrary decisions) govern society Opposition to discrimination (religious or otherwise) and slavery in the colonies, abuse of power, use of public opinion to form a moral consciousness, etc. Idea of equality: What defines our identity is that we are all human; end of class distinction, birth rights, privileges What is the Enlightenment? What is the Enlightenment? Age of great scientific discoveries in mathematics, physics, biology, etc. Science as an orderly system; to bring a scientific order to the universe > secular world view Classification systems: plants, animals, rocks, cultures in non­ European countries, criminals, etc. Knowledge is finite; it can be described and acquired in its completeness Encyclopédie project: to summarize all human knowledge in one multiple­volume book, ordered by alphabetic entries; a blueprint for civilization>term encyclopedia derived from it; scientific emphasis Authors, editors: Diderot, d’Alembert, d’Holbach Spread of the ideas responsible for the outbreak of the French Sample Encyclopédie Entry: Sample “Man: A being that has feelings, reflecting on his (her) actions, thinking, who moves freely on the surface of the earth, and who seems to come out ahead of all the other animals, which he (she) dominates. He (she) lives in the society that has invented arts and sciences, has an inherent goodness or meanness which is proper to him (her), and who has given himself (herself) masters who established laws.” Chardin: Chardin: Departure from the Rococo Style Jean­Baptiste­Siméon Chardin, The Rayfish, 1727, oil o/canvas By the mid­18th century a strong anti­Rococo current in French art Return to serious subjects, morally uplifting How to do it? History painting? The Academy’s answer. A new type of painting dealing with Enlightenment themes? The answer of the well­to­do middle class that is gaining in importance Chardin: Chardin: Departure from the Rococo Style Chardin epitomized the taste of the bourgeoisie (middle class) Rayfish his reception piece at the Academy Imitates Flemish and Dutch art Famous for still life painting appreciated by the middle­ Chardin: Chardin: Departure from the Rococo Style Modesty of intentions: Chardin insisted on being received as a genre painter Set up Rayfish in hallway of French Academy President of Academy: “You’ve got some very good pictures here; surely they are by some good Flemish painter” (story invented) Chardin: Chardin: Serious Play Jean­Baptiste­Siméon Chardin, Grace at Table, 1740, oil on canvas Second specialty: painting of children Education: important new topic of Enlightenment literature (not a concern previously); a pre­occupation of the bourgeoisie Childhood recognized as a distinct stage in an individual’s development Emotional involvement of parents, play required for the formation of personality Infants no longer send to nursemaids in the countryside Chardin: Chardin: Serious Play Jean­Baptiste­Siméon Chardin, Boy Building a House of Cards, 1741, oil o/canvas Emphasis on boy’s intense concentration A serious child, well­dressed Intellectual curiosity (experiment, play) as pre­ condition for science, discoveries Popular painting in the Parisian Salon; reproduced in many prints Greuze: Greuze: The Moralizing Painter Jean­Baptiste Greuze, The Village Bride, 1761, oil on canvas Greuze an extremely popular painter in the 1760s and 1770s Was commissioned the painting for unheard sum of 7,000 livres (French currency) Iconographically a strange hybrid: moralizing intent is fused with sentimental and larmoyant (tearful) stories Greuze: Greuze: The Moralizing Painter Specialty: Bourgeois family dramas Division into male/female realm Here: arranged marriage in the French countryside Left: Emotional good­bye of the bride’s mother (females>emotional) Right: Counter­balance through notary setting up marriage contract (males: business­like) Civic marriage>connotations with Protestantism (persecuted in France at times) Greuze: Greuze: The Moralizing Painter Diderot (one of the Philosophes): “Should Greuze encounter a head which strikes him, he would willingly throw himself at the feet of the bearer of that head to attract it to his studio [to pose].” Variety of posed, gestures, emotional responses and “character heads” fascinated contemporary audiences Greuze: Greuze: The Moralizing Painter Jean­Baptiste Greuze, The Father’s Curse, 1777, oil o/canvas Modern adaptation of the Prodigal Son story Son of bourgeois family leaves against everybody’s will to join the military Life of soldiers associated with dissipation and sin in 18th century Father curses son as he leaves Pendant painting The Punished Son Eighteenth­century soap opera Greuze: Greuze: The Moralizing Painter Jean­Baptiste Greuze, The Punished Son, 1777, oil o/canvas Conclusion to previous picture Son returns home, regretting his actions But: father has just died; can no longer forgive him his fool­heartedness – sob! Pretext for more tears Vigée­Lebrun: Vig Painter to the Queen Marie­Antoinette Elisabeth Louise Vigée­ Lebrun, Self­Portrait, oil o/canvas, 1790 Most famous woman artist of the late 18th century Trained by her father, became painter to the Queen Marie­Antoinette, who would be guillotined during the French Revolution Vigée­Lebrun: Vig Painter to the Queen Marie­Antoinette Self­portrait in front of easel: identifies herself with her profession On the easel: a portrait of Marie­Antoinette Left France at the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789) together with many members of the aristocracy (emigrés) Later version: Rembrandt portrait replaces portrait of the Queen Vigée­Lebrun: Vig Painter to the Queen Marie­Antoinette Elisabeth Louise Vigée­Lebrun, Marie­Antoinette with Her Children, 1787, oil o/canvas Marie­Antoinette: an Austrian woman, disliked by French population Rumors of the Queen’s neglecting her children, sexual dissipation Commissioned as visual propaganda to dispel rumors But: Arts Administration did not dare to hang work in the Salon, for which it was commissioned Reynolds: Reynolds: First President of the British Academy Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lord Heathfield, 1787, oil o/canvas Britain: backwater for painting until second half of 18th century British specialty: portraits and landscapes 1768 (120 years after France): British Academy of Painting founded with Reynolds as its first president Reynolds: Reynolds: First President of the British Academy Reynolds mostly a portrait painter Lord Heathfield: British governor of Gibraltar Heroically defended the British fortress­island during the Spanish siege, 1779­1783 Background: smoke of battlefield, canon ...
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