ART HLecture5Part1

ART HLecture5Part1 - ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 5 Outline Lecture 5 Geo­political situation in Northern Europe (Flanders and Burgundy) during the 15th Century Rise of cities and commerce Altarpieces in the Northern European tradition Private devotional images The rise of portraiture Sculpture and printmaking in Northern Europe Burgundy & Flanders Burgundy & Flanders in the 15th Century Burgundy: Political designation: Duchy of Burgundy; today Belgium and the Burgundy region in France Ruled by Philip the Good (1396­1467) Art patronage Burgundy & Flanders Burgundy & Flanders in the 15th Century Great economic prosperity through trade, especially wool trade Rise of cities, mercantile class Invention of stock Exchange (Bourse), credit instruments No tradition of classical art, humanism as in Italy Instead: interest in devotional images Lingering Medieval pre­ occupation with sin, Broederlam: Broederlam: Rétable de Champmol, Dijon Melchior Broederlam, Annunciation and Visitation (Left) and Presentation and Flight into Egypt (Right), Outer wings of the Rétable de Champmol (Altarpiece of Champmol), Chartreuse (charter house) of Champmol, Dijon, installed 1399. Broederlam: Broederlam: Rétable de Champmol, Dijon Champmol: town in the French part of Burgundy Chartreuse: Charter house of the Carthusuian monastery of Champmol Monastic life: commitment to silence and prayer Altarpiece: devotional focus of the community Broederlam: Broederlam: Rétable de Champmol, Dijon Wings of altarpieces could be opened and closed for worship or service Painted on the inside and outside of movable wings Here: scenes from the outside of the wings Iconography: New Testament Biblical themes Left>Annunciation of Christ’s birth to the Virgin through Angel Gabriel; Right>Presentation of Christ in the Temple and Flight into Egypt Broederlam: Broederlam: Rétable de Champmol, Dijon Northern Renaissance: art heavily charged with symbolic meaning Left: Rotunda (round Building)=Old Testament; Gothic porch with tracery= New Testament Crammed spatial composition: typical for Renaissance in the North Sluter: Sluter: Sculpture at Champmol Monastery Claus Sluter, Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, 1395­1406, (painted) limestone Sculpture for the well of the same charter house near Dijon Prophets: here Moses with tablets of Commandments Bulky figures, heavy drapery: Northern European tradition, different from Italian Renaissance Riemenschneider: Riemenschneider: A Comparison with Provincial German Wood Carving Tilman Riemenschneider, Creglinger Altarpiece, Parish Church, Creglingen (Gemany), c. 1495­1499, Carved lindenwood Example of Gothic Altarpiece from Germany, end 15th century Same type of heavy drapery, style of carving Northern European tradition Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Ghent Altarpiece Jan Van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, (closed view), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, completed 1432, Oil o/wood Example of a polyptypch: an altarpiece with multiple wings/ hinged panels Religious function: backdrop for celebration of Mass Opened for religious ceremonies, Sundays, Easter, etc. Closed view during regular days Private commission: donors Jodocus Vyd and Isabel Borluut Burgomeister (mayor) and his wife of Ghent Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Ghent Altarpiece Chapel built by couple to receive the altarpiece Complex iconographic program: Center panels: Annunciation Scene: Left: Angel Gabriel, white lilies>virginity; Right: Virgin Mary with dove: Holy Spirit Background: view of the town of Ghent Typical Northern Renaissance: Biblical scenes are situated in the context of local culture Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Ghent Altarpiece Donors in praying pose included kneeling in the lower left and right­hand corner Sculptural figures in center: Old Testament prophets Zachariah and Micah Gothic tracery Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Ghent Altarpiece View of the same Ghent altarpiece by Van Eyck opened Top register: Central panel: God the Father in Heaven (in papal tiara) Left: Virgin Mary as Queen of Heaven Right: St. John the Baptist Choir of angels Adam and Eve Emphasis on visual splendor Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Ghent Altarpiece Bottom register: Center panel: Sacrificial lamb (symbol of Christ); Foreground: prophets (L), twelve apostles and martyrs in red robes (R); Background: Virgin martyrs and Holy Confessors Side panels: Four cardinal Virtues (from left): Judges panel=Justice; Knights panel=Fortitude; Hermits panel=Temperance; Pilgrims panel= Prudence Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Ghent Altarpiece Iconographic complexity deliberate Splendor of rendition Jewel­like quality of dress, ornaments, gilded haloes Painstaking detail Northern European landscapes Metaphor for riches in Heaven for believer Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Portraiture Jan Van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban, 1433, oil o/wood Portraiture: conventions from altarpieces relaxed Secular, private art Smaller scale Possibly the first painted Western self­portrait since Antiquity (1,000+ years) Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Portraiture Discovery of the self: Important step in modern Consciousness Original frame with inscription: “As I can” Vanity: turban, Greek letters, but Flemish words Use of mirror; see Lacan’s (20th century psychoanalyst/ cultural theoretician) theories on the self Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Portraiture Jan van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, oil o/wood, 1434 Private commission by Arnolfini and his wife for their marriage Italian from the city of Lucca, agent of the Medici commercial empire in Bruges (Flanders) Although private art, iconography is rife with religious Van Eyck: Van Eyck: Portraiture Details and their Symbolism: Dog=Fidelity (Lat. Fido) Round Mirror, single, lit candle of chandelier=God’s all­ seeing Eye Wooden shoes=Flemish wedding gift from husband Mirror: artist’s signature, medallions with Passion of Christ scenes Religious overtones: holiness of Matrimony Another emphasis: material well­ being, middle­class life, social identity as burghers, wealth through mercantile exchange ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course ARTH 1440 taught by Professor Camerlenghi during the Fall '11 term at LSU.

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