ARTHLecture4Part2 - Donatello Donatello David Donatello...

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Unformatted text preview: Donatello: Donatello: David Donatello, David, late 1420s­late 1450s, bronze Commission for the Palazzo Medici courtyard in Florence Canon of classical nudity Middle Ages: the Classical nude could not be represented Connotations pagan tradition, sin Donatello: Donatello: David First free­standing classical nude figure since Antiquity Compare: Roman copy of an Ancient Greek sculpture of Hermes Interpreted in Biblical story: David, slayer of Goliath David treading on Goliath’s head David also associated with independent republic of Florence Classical convention of contrapposto (weight shift) Verrocchio: Verrocchio: David Andrea del Verocchio, David, c. 1465­1470, bronze A second Medici commission Different approach to subject: No classical nude, although body contours clearly visible Psychological difference: ­ Donatello: introspection, quiet, classical, looks at Goliath’s head ­ Verrocchio: brash, confident, self­ assertive, looks at spectator The Two Davids in Comparison The Two Davids in Comparison Della Robbia: Della Robbia: Popular Terracotta Sculpture Luca della Robbia, Madonna and Child, Or San Michele, Florence, c. 1455­1460, terracotta with polychrome glaze Architectural ornaments in glazed terracotta Typically devotional images Here: on the Or San Michele Tondo (round) format Di Cambio: Di Cambio: Architect of Florence Cathedral Begun by Arnolfo di Cambio, Florence Cathedral, View from the South, Florence, 1296 Cathedrals since the Middle Ages symbols of civic pride of a city Reflect wealth and prosperity Di Cambrio built nave of Florence Cathedral (see groundplan) Marble pattern on façade: typical feature of traditional Tuscan architecture (Tuscany=region around Florence) Di Bondone: Di Bondone: Campanile of Florence Cathedral Painter Giotto di Bondone designed Campanile (bell tower) to the right in 1334 Biggest structural problem: How to design dome (challenge to engineering skills)? Remained unresolved, Brunelleschi: Brunelleschi: Dome of Florence Cathedral Fillippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral, South View, Florence, 1420­1436 Dome crossing impossible with traditional techniques available (wooden centering, buttressing) Brunelleschi: Brunelleschi: Dome of Florence Cathedral Brunelleschi was the sculptor who lost in the competition over the Baptistery Door commission Brunelleschi’s solution: Dome consists of ogival (pointed arch) sections with ribs Thin double shell for dome (first time ever that this was attempted) Reduction of pressure on dome’s base Highly innovative solution and engineering feat Brunelleschi: Pazzi Chapel Fillippo Brunelleschi, Pazzi Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence, begun c. 1440 Commission received after Cathedral dome completed Private commission by Pazzi family to built chapel adjacent to church of Santa Croce Exterior façade (loggia) NOT by Brunellechi, but later addition Brunelleschi: Pazzi Chapel Brunelleschi’s genius visible in the ground plan Dome is dominant feature Central plan with modules that follow a strictly symmetrical arrangement Interior according to Brunelleschi’s design Pietra serena (serene stone) and Della Robbia terracotta decorations Impression of serenity, austerity Michelozzo di Bartolommeo: Michelozzo di Bartolommeo: The Medici Palace in Florence Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, Palazzo Medici­Riccardi, Florence, begun 1445 Extraordinary concentration of wealth and political power with Medici family, under Cosimo de’Medici Family ousted in 1430s Return in 1434 Wary of overly ostentatious display of wealth Michelozzo di Bartolommeo: Michelozzo di Bartolommeo: The Medici Palace in Florence Change of architect and design for palace in the aftermath of expulsion Michelozzo di Bartolommeo takes over project Solution: hybrid structure between palace and fortress Heavily rusticated façade (roughly hewn stone) on ground floor, with increasingly refined architectural detail as one moves up Rusticated masonry: Roman Michelozzo di Bartolommeo: Michelozzo di Bartolommeo: The Medici Palace in Florence Top: Example of Rusticated masonry in Roman architecture Bottom: Courtyard of Palazzo Medici: Light, airy feel to it; very different from façade Original location of Donatello’s “David” Corinthian columns Alberti: Alberti: Architect and Mathematician Leon Battista Alberti, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence, c. 1452­1470 Alberti: an architectural theoretician Translated a treatise by Roman writer Vitruvius on architecture (De architectura) Alberti: Alberti: Architect and Mathematician Palazzo Rucellai: a monument that is filled with references to classical architecture 1st floor: Tuscan order (capitals: variant of Greek so­ called Doric order) 2nd floor: Composite order (capitals: Greek Ionic volutes with Roman­style Acanthus leaves) 3rd floor: Corinthian order Play with architectural traditions as symbol for cultural refinement Overview of Orders in Classical Overview of Architecture Left to Right: Doric Ionic Corinthian Alberti: Alberti: Architect and Mathematician Leon Battista Alberti, West Façade of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, c. 1458­1470 Church proper dates from the 13th century; Alberti designed only the façade Alberti’s obsession: architectural symmetry, rhythm, mathematical structure, refinement Typically Tuscan exterior with marble­encrusted façade Structure completely designed according to mathematical ratios (1:1, 2:1, 1:3, 2:3, etc.) Another innovative feature: lateral scrolls Alberti: Alberti: Architect and Mathematician Leon Battista Alberti, West Façade of Sant’Andrea, Mantua, designed c. 1470 Structure rife with Roman architectural references: Temple front merged with triumphal arch Rigidly symmetrical, mathematical ratios as design principles Alberti: Alberti: Architect and Mathematician Below Left: Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome, c. 75 B.C. Below Right: Arch of Titus, Rome, c. 81 A.C. ...
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