ARTHLecture6Part1

ARTHLecture6Part1 - ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 6 Outline Lecture 6 Early vs. High Renaissance in Rome Artist as Uomo universale (universal man) – Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo and the Sistine Ceiling Raphael and the High Renaissance in Rome Chronology of the Renaissance in Chronology of the Renaissance in Italy Proto­Renaissance: 13th to 14th centuries Early Renaissance: 15th century (Quattrocento) High Renaissance: 16th century (Cinquecento) High Renaissance is the period marked by some of the most outstanding artistic talent in history: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Age of scientific discoveries, technological advancement Unity of arts and sciences Cult of the Uomo universale; universal man, genius Botticelli: Botticelli: Transition to High Renaissance Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, c. 1482, tempera o/canvas Artists worked for the Medici Literary inspiration: poem by Humanist Angelo Poliziano Non­religious motif of vaguely antique/pagan inspiration Botticelli: Botticelli: Transition to High Renaissance Iconography: Venus, Classical goddess of Love, sea born on a shell, arrives on her sacred island Cyprus She is moved by Zephyrus, god of wind, left Nymph Pomona, right, to receive her with embroidered mantle Botticelli: Botticelli: Transition to High Renaissance Created at the end of Quattrocento, but anticipates the High Renaissance Volumetric bodies, mythological themes (mythology=stories about the gods and heroes of Classical Antiquity) Iconography increasingly divorced from religious themes Hedonistic enjoyment of the Senses (Hedonism=enjoyment of pleasure for its own sake) Leonardo da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci: The Uomo Universale Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin on the Rocks, c. 1485, oil o/wood Da Vinci = Leonardo from the [town] of Vinci [near Florence] Multiple talents: military engineering, geography, anatomy, sculpture and painting Trained in sculptor Andrea del Verocchio’s studio Leonardo da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci: The Uomo Universale After 1481 employed by Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan Commissioned as central panel of altarpiece in the chapel of the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception in Milan “Virgin on the Rocks” painted for this patron Formal analysis: pyramidal composition Iconography: Infant St. John (praying) blessed by the Christ Child, Mary, angel Example for atmospheric perspective (misty, soft focus atmosphere) Leonardo da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci: The Uomo Universale Leonardo da Vinci, Sketch for Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Infant St. John, c. 1505­1507, charcoal on paper Preparatory sketch for oil painting Atmospheric perspective Conventions relaxed over previous work: Christ child playing with Infant St. John the Baptist Leonardo da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci: The Uomo Universale Top: Leonardo da Vinci, Fetus and Lining in the Uterus, c. 1511­ 1513, pen and ink with wash over red chalk Bottom: Leonardo da Vinci, Mortars Discharging Shells that Explode on Impact, c. 1485­1488, pen and ink with wash Examples of pages from da Vinci’s manuscripts Indicate the range of his scientific interests; marriage arts Leonardo da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci: The Uomo Universale Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, Refectory, Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, c. 1495­1498, fresco Appropriate subject for the refectory (=dining hall) of a convent Emphasis on the theme of the Eucharist: Wine=Christ’s blood; Bread=Christ’s body; strictly single­point perspective Leonardo da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci: The Uomo Universale Leonardo’s psychological introspection: moment of Christ’s statement “One of you will betray me” Disciples wonder “who can it be?” Fresco deteriorated badly, result of Leonardo’s unfortunate experiments with materials>more restored color than original substance Leonardo da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci: The Uomo Universale Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503­1505, oil/c. Identified by the Giorgio Vasari (first art historian) as Lisa di Antonio Maria Gherardini, a wealthy Florentine woman Famous for her enigmatic smile Excellent example for sfumato (soft­ focus, misty atmosphere, similar to atmospheric perspective) Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, 1508­1512, fresco One of the most ambitious artistic undertakings in human history Part of a large building program started by pope Julius II (“warrior pope”) for the Vatican Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Prior to receiving the commission, Michelangelo worked mostly as a sculptor Volumetric body­type is typical for that of a sculptor Multiple challenges: size (5,800 square feet), curvature of ceiling, distance to floor (70 feet) How to maintain visual illusionism? Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Iconographic program: Book of Genesis>Creation, Fall, Redemption of Humanity Start: God separating Light and Dark Finish: Drunkenness of Noah In­between: Creation of Man, Fall from Sin Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Seated figures of the sides of central panels: Hebrew prophets and pagan sibyls Spandrels (triangular corner panels): Old Testament figures, e.g. Moses, David, Judith, Haman Ancestors of Christ above windows Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Two central panels: Creation of Adam Fall from Sin Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti, Last Judgment, Altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, 1534­1541, Fresco Last Judgment fresco realized more than twenty years after the ceiling Change in style and mood Sack of Rome (1527) Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel During interval period: The Reformation in Germany under Martin Luther (95 theses) Julius II had financed building of Vatican with sale of indulgences (forgiveness letters for sins), nepotism: Church posts for members of his own family Criticism of Roman Catholic Church leads to break away and division into a Catholic and Protestant (Lutheran) church Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Catholic Counter­ Reformation: Council of Trente (1545­ 1563): Convince believers with splendor of churches Power of visual images tested here by Michelangelo Center: Risen Christ of Judgment Day Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Upper level, close to Christ: saved souls, angels, martyrs Lower level: souls cast into hell, tortured by daemons Michelangelo: Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel Detail of one of the martyrs: St. Bartholomew: skinned alive Holds flaying knife and skin as sign of his martyrdom Face on skin: Self­ portrait Michelangelo? ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course ARTH 1440 taught by Professor Camerlenghi during the Fall '11 term at LSU.

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