ARTHLecture9Part1-1 - ARTH 1441 ARTH 1441 Historical Survey...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 9 Outline Lecture 9 The Reformation in Germany and the Netherlands The Isenheim Altarpiece (Catholic tradition) Dürer’s paintings and prints (Protestant tradition) Art in the Netherlands in the 16th century The Age of the Reformation The Age of the Reformation Since Pope Julius II: Catholic church sold indulgences, nepotism (church offices sold, Medici grip on papacy)>financing artistic ambitions in Rome Increased emphasis on private piety, prayer over the fifteenth century Martin Luther nailed “95 theses” on the doors of church in Wittenberg in 1517 (Northern Germany)>beginning of Protestantism>Catholic Church/Papacy seen as corrupt>schism of church (Catholic Church Protestant/Lutheran Church) Luther translated Latin Bible into vernacular German so that laypeople could understand it; sermons also no longer taught in Latin, but in German The Age of Reformation The Age of Reformation Personal accountability for sins before God; punitive God Protestant church interiors: Spartan, art and decoration is de­emphasized; concentration of Bible as sole authority on spiritual matters>avoid distraction through visual representations in church Counter­Reformation (Council of Trent): overwhelm believer with powerful visual rhetoric and Splendor of church interiors>Baroque style The Reformation in Germany and The Reformation in Germany and the Netherlands Germany: Patch­work pattern of principalities that are either Lutheran or Catholic Subjects have to adopt the confession of the political leader in their principality Netherlands: Division between a Protestant North (today’s Holland) and a Catholic south (today’s Belgium) Christian humanism>Erasmus of Rotterdam: classical learning and literature adapted to Christian message Grünewald: Gr The Isenheim Altarpiece Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (Closed view): Crucifixion, Chapel of the Hospital of St. Anthony, Isenheim, c. 1510­1515, oil o/panel Conceived for the Catholic, monastic hospital of St. Anthony in Isenheim (Southern Germany)>Catholic iconography Grünewald: Gr The Isenheim Altarpiece Hospital treated especially victims of ergotism (ergot> fungus that grows on rye)> similar to bubonic plague> red sores, extremities wasting away> also called “St. Anthony’s fire” Sickness believed to be God’s punishment> prayer (before altarpiece ) as part of cure Grünewald: Gr The Isenheim Altarpiece Iconography: Crucifixion in center>sacrificial lamb> Catholic iconography Side panels: St. Sebastian (left) and St. Anthony (right); both saints associated with miracle healings, plague Depiction of saints, their miracles>Catholic iconography Predella: Lamentation of Christ>his body covered with sores similar to those caused by “St. Anthony’s fire” Grünewald: Gr The Isenheim Altarpiece Matthias Grünewald (wings) and Nikolaus Hagenauer (carving), Isenheim Altarpiece (Open), Chapel of the Hospital of St. Anthony, Isenheim, c. 1510­ 1515/1490, oil o/panel Carved altarpieces with polychrome paint have long tradition in Germany Grünewald: Gr The Isenheim Altarpiece Left wing: Meeting of saints Anthony and Paul; serene life free of illness for God­fearing saints Right wing: Temptation of St. Anthony; horrid depiction of St. Anthony’s suffering> daemons, depiction of sores caused by ergotism Dürer’s Background Father: a goldsmith in Nuremberg Roots in Nuremberg’s prospering publishing industry: Publisher Koberger> Dürer’s godfather; Painter Wolgemut> Dürer’s teacher Good understanding of perspective, tradition of the classical nude Journeyman travel to Rhine valley, Cologne (1490) Paintings associated with the aesthetics of the Reformation> Dürer supported Martin Luther Became one of the greatest printmakers in history Dürer: Aesthetics of the Reformation in Germany Albrecht Dürer, Four Apostles, 1526, oil o/panel Left: St. John and St. Peter (with key>associated with papacy >pushed into background) Right: St. Mark and St. Paul St. John foregrounded, because he was associated with the Dürer: Aesthetics of the Reformation in Germany Panels executed at Dürer’s own expenses and presented to the city fathers of Nuremberg in 1526 Paintings exhibited in city hall, not in a church Dürer’s Adam and Eve: The Northern European Nude Albrecht Dürer, The Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504, engraving Biblical Fall interpreted in terms of Northern (bulky, fleshy, less graceful) nudes in a Germanic forest Animals as allegories for human temperaments (“four humors”); associated with four bodily fluids Dürer’s Adam and Eve: The Northern European Nude The Four Humors: Elk=Melancholy Ox=Phlegm Cat=Hot temper, choleric behavior Rabbit=Sanguinity, cheerfulness Cat mouse=imperfection of human nature Goat on cliff=Symbol of unbelief ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course ARTH 1440 taught by Professor Camerlenghi during the Fall '11 term at LSU.

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