ARTHLecture9Part2-1

ARTHLecture9Part2-1 - The Three “Master Engravings” The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Three “Master Engravings” The Three “Master Engravings” Albrecht Dürer, Knight, Death, and Devil, 1513, engraving Master engravings: Dürer’s most famous works Knight, Death, and Devil, St. Jerome in His Study, and Melancholia I Allegories of three virtues: Theological (St. Jerome), moral (Knight), intellectual (Melancholia) Complex iconography, meticulous linework, nuances of silvery tones, The Three “Master Engravings” The Three “Master Engravings” Allegorical representation: Knight in the center defiantly ignores Death (with hour glass; cadaverous) and the Devil (daemon, fantasy creature), dog (fidelity), lizard (sin) Multiple readings of the Knight are possible: Emperor Maximilian, “Christian Knight” from Medieval chivalric tradition (Crusades), Death and Devil not antagonists, but attributes of the Knight The Three “Master Engravings” The Three “Master Engravings” Altdorfer: Altdorfer: An Epic Battle Albrecht Altdorfer, The Battle of Issus, 1529, oil o/panel Defeat of Persian king Darius by Greek conqueror Alexander the Great at Issus in 333 B.C. Allegorical picture: Altdorfer commissioned by Wilhelm IV, Duke of Bavaria to paint battle scene Altdorfer: Altdorfer: An Epic Battle Event depicted derived from classical antiquity, but it refers to current political events Completed when Wilhelm IV about to leave on a military campaign to repel the Ottoman Turks about to invade Europe; Darius=Turks Alexander=Bavarians, Austrians Altdorfer: Altdorfer: An Epic Battle Not a Near Eastern landscape, but a Northern European fantasy panorama In the distance: imaginary view from Greece across the Mediterranean to Egypt with Nile delta No established conventions for depicting the Orient Holbein the Younger: Holbein the Younger: Diplomatic Double­Portrait Hans Holbein the Younger, The French Ambassadors, 1533, oil and tempera o/panel Holbein: Protestant Dutch painter, later to become court painter in Great Britain Frequented intellectual milieu of Christian humanists; met Erasmus of Rotterdam in Basel (center of Protestantism/ Calvinism) Holbein the Younger: Holbein the Younger: Diplomatic Double­Portrait Erasmus recommended Holbein to the court of Henry VIII in Britain Sitters: French ambassadors to England>Jean de Dinteville and Georges de Selve Attributes of humanist scholars: astronomical and mathematical models, scientific and musical instruments (lute and reed flute), Oriental carpet, rich cloth Holbein the Younger: Holbein the Younger: Diplomatic Double­Portrait Anamorphic image (anamorphosis= distortion of form) Object only visible with a cylindrical mirror Skull>memento mori (=reminder of death, mortality) Gossaert (Mabuse): Gossaert (Mabuse): Dürer’s influence Jan Gossaert (Mabuse), Neptune and Amphitrite, c. 1516, oil o/panel Dutch artist in contact with Humanist scholars in Italy Combines Italianate influences with Dürer’s Germanic nudes seen in The Fall of Man (massive bodies, fleshy, not elegant) Gossaert (Mabuse): Gossaert (Mabuse): Dürer’s influence Contrapposto (weight shift)> Italian Renaissance convention Attributes of the classical Sea god: trident, conch shell Classical setting: fluted columns, bucrania (ox skull decoration) Massys: Massys: Calvinist Morals Quinten Massys, Money­ Changer and His Wife, 1514, oil o/panel Active at Antwerp (today in Belgium, 16th century part of the Netherlands) Wealth through trade, commerce Calvinism (Netherlands, parts of Switzerland): extreme form of Protestantism>monetary wealth could be an indication for a virtuous life, pleasing God Massys: Massys: Calvinist Morals Virtuous couple of money changers Husband: counting/weighing coins (not standardized in the 16th century) Wife: prayer book Round mirror: reflection of man reading Bible or prayer book Balance between worldly concerns (accumulation of worldly riches) and spiritual riches (accumulation of riches in the beyond) Massys: Massys: Calvinist Morals Bruegel the Elder: Bruegel the Elder: Dutch Fantasy Landscapes Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565, oil o/panel Bruegel found inspiration in Dutch countryside Emphasis on low life or genre scenes Typically Dutch iconography Visual appeal of snow­ covered village>fairy tale feel Returning hunters (left) Lakes frozen>ice skating (background) Hilly landscape, mill add points of visual interest Bruegel the Elder: Bruegel the Elder: Dutch Fantasy Landscapes Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559, oil o/panel Another Dutch fantasy village, populated by peasants Bizarre behavior of population Explanation: Bruegel rendered Dutch proverbs in visual terms Bruegel the Elder: Bruegel the Elder: Dutch Fantasy Landscapes Examples: Man “bites a column” (hypocrisy) Another “beats his head against the wall” (despair over extreme ambition) “Blind Leading the Blind” (idiocy of human behavior) Vast repertoire of Netherlandish proverbs, a selection depicted here Typically Dutch sense of (gross) humor ...
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