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ARTHLecture10Part1-1 - ARTH 1441 ARTH 1441 Historical...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 10 Outline Lecture 10 The Age of the Baroque and the Counter­Reformation Bernini’s sculptural program for the Vatican Caravaggio and Baroque tenebrist painting Illusionist ceiling painting in Italy Baroque painting in Spain The Age of the Baroque The Age of the European art, architecture, literature, and music of the 17th and 18th centuries From Portuguese word barocco=irregularly shaped pearl Initially a derogatory term (of inferior quality with respect to Renaissance art) Convoluted forms (f. ex. spiral columns), heightened emotionalism, intense religiosity, theatricality, rapture, irrationality, over­decoration The Age of the Baroque The Age of the Baroque Context: struggle between Catholicism and Protestantism over leadership position in Europe Almost continuous religious wars, esp. Thirty Years War (1618­1648) Baroque Art: associated with Catholicism Outgrowth of the Council of Trent (1545­1563): use the rhetorical and propaganda qualities of art to convince believers of the virtues of Catholicism Bernini: Bernini: A New Interior for the Vatican Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, Vatican, Rome, 1624­1633, gilded Bronze Like nobody else, Bernini defined the Baroque style Created a gigantic (100 feet) Baldacchino (bronze canopy) over the tomb of St. Peter in the Vatican Spiral columns (allegedly used in the Baldacchino of Old St. Peter’s), over­decoration Bernini: Bernini: A New Interior for the Vatican Sumptuous materials: gilded bronze>bronze from the doors of the Pantheon in Rome (pagan monument) Theatricality, Drama: Vista on the symbolic Cathedra Petri (St. Peter’s throne) in background Commissioned by Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini) Decorated with vines and bees>bee was symbol of the Barberini family Bernini: Bernini: A New Interior for the Vatican Gianlorenzo Bernini, Scala Regia (Royal Stairway), Vatican, Rome, 1663­1666 Scala Regia: connected papal apartments with St. Peter’s cathedral Old Stairway: dark and dangerous; Bernini received commission by Pope Alexander VII Barrel vault, two additional rows of Corinthian columns add focus (narrow with ascend), light source at the end of the passage­ way gives sense of melodrama; illuminated platform mid­way Bernini: Bernini: Emotionalism in Sculpture Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1623, marble Iconography known from Donatello, Verrocchio, and Michelangelo Commissioned by Roman Cardinal and art collector Scipione Borghese Highest pitch of tension, as David is about to sling a stone at Goliath All energy concentrated on the act of killing High Renaissance interest in depicting Idealized human bodies abandoned Emotionalism replaces classical beauty Bernini: Bernini: Emotionalism in Sculpture Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, Coronaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, 1645­1652 Purpose: capture the essence of religious ecstasy St. Teresa: Nun from the Carmelite order Mystical Saint of the Spanish Counter­Reformation Bernini: Bernini: Emotionalism in Sculpture St. Teresa experienced trances, visions, heard voices Persistent pain: fiery arrow of divine love (here represented by angel with arrow) Mixture between pain, rapture, swooning Theatricality: Scene illuminated from an indirect source of light (hidden window) Bernini: Bernini: Emotionalism in Sculpture Fondness for rich material obvious from setting: marble in different colors, gold, over­ decoration Typical work of art from the Counter­Reformation; stressing of belief, devotion, and piety (irrationality) over reason Caravaggio: Caravaggio: The Invention of Tenebrism Caravaggio, Conversion of Saint Paul, Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, c. 1601, oil o/canvas Biblical iconography: Pharisee Saul converted to Paul Mysterious (divine?) light source outside the picture>supernatural event about to take place Caravaggio: Caravaggio: The Invention of Tenebrism Night setting, dramatic contrast between light and dark: features of tenebrism (Italian: tenebroso=shadowy manner) Same effect as in Bernini’s St. Teresa Caravaggio: Caravaggio: The Invention of Tenebrism Caravaggio, Calling of Saint Matthew, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, c. 1597­ 1601, oil o/canvas Biblical scene: Christ enters the house of Levi and summons the Roman tax collector to a higher calling>St. Matthew Christ’s face: half in shadow, traces of halo Caravaggio: Caravaggio: The Invention of Tenebrism Levi: points at himself in surprise Same indirect light source Typical example of tenebrist painting Caravaggio pioneered it Caravaggio: Caravaggio: The Invention of Tenebrism Caravaggio, Entombment, from the Chapel of Pietro Vittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, c. 1603, oil o/canvas Characteristics of Caravaggio painting: single­light source outside picture, tenebrism, plebeian or peasant types for figures Bulky bodies, unsophisticated; departure Renaissance aesthetics Original setting: illusion of Christ’s body being placed on altar>allusion to Eucharist transubstantiation (wine and bread)>visual rhetoric of Counter­Reformation Gentileschi: Gentileschi: Caravaggio’s Follower Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes, c. 1614­ 1620, oil o/canvas Woman artist trained by her father, painter Orazio Strong influence of Caravaggio; active in Florence, Venice, Naples and Rome Gentileschi: Gentileschi: Caravaggio’s Follower Gruesome scene from the Apocrypha (Book of Judith): Judith to deliver the Isrealites from the tyranny of Assyrian general Holofernes Seduces him, cuts off his head while he was asleep at night In Gentileschi’s version helped by her maidservant Gentileschi liked to depict scenes featuring “strong women” ...
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