ARTHLecture10Part2-1 - Carracci Carracci The Beginnings of...

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Unformatted text preview: Carracci: Carracci: The Beginnings of Academic Painting Annibale Carracci, Flight into Egypt, 1603­1604, oil on canvas Carracci: founder of the first Art Academy (Art School) in Bologna Tradition of classical art: Mainstay of art academies for the next 300 years Here: classical (“idealized”) landscape as backdrop for Biblical scene; bucolic overtones: tranquility and peace of the countryside Influenced by Venetian tradition of landscape painting (rugged landscapes) Carracci: Carracci: The Beginnings of Academic Painting Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, Palazzo Farnese gallery, Rome, 1597­1601, fresco Carracci best known for his accomplishments in illusionist ceiling painting commissioned by Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, related to Pope Paul III Carracci: Carracci: The Beginnings of Academic Painting Format with framed panels implies a picture gallery with easel painting In fact: fresco painting> illusionism Difficulty: curvature of barrel vault: how to create the illusion of a two­dimensional wall? Influence: Michelangelo’s Sistine ceiling; especially reclining figures of muscular youths on lower ledge Reni: Reni: A Mythological Ceiling Guido Reni, Aurora, ceiling from the Casino Rospigliosi, Rome, 1613­1614, fresco Aurora (goddess of Dawn) leads Apollo’s chariot, surrounded by the Hours Monumental ceiling painting with classical mythological or religious themes enjoyed great popularity in the Baroque age Da Cortona: Da Cortona: Illusionistic Ceiling Painting Pietro da Cortona, Triumph of the Barberini, ceiling from the Gran Salone, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, 1633­1639, fresco Commissioned by Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini) for his family palazzo in Rome Fresco celebrates the Barberini family Da Cortona: Da Cortona: Illusionistic Ceiling Painting Apotheosis (elevation to divine status) of Barberini family: Divine Providence (surrounded by radiant light) receives Immortality (holding a crown of stars), while laurel wreath of the Barberini family (bees, keys of St. Peter) is being introduced Illusion of being uplifted into the endless skies Pozzo: Pozzo: A Jesuit Apotheosis Fra Andrea Pozzo, Glorification of St. Ignatius, ceiling from the nave of Sant’Ignazio, Rome, 1691­1694, fresco Pozzo a member of the Jesuit order, master of illusionistic architectural painting Iconography: Founder of the Jesuit Order, Sant’Ignazio, is received by Christ in Heaven; space filled with freely floating figures in a setting of fantastic classical architecture of arches, columns, and pilasters El Greco: El Greco: The Transition from Mannerism to the Baroque in Spain El Greco, The Burial of Count Orgaz, Santo Tomé, Toledo, 1586, oil o/canvas Artist born on the Greek island of Crete, trained in Venice (influence Tintoretto); knowledge of Florentine and Roman Mannerist style Introduced the innovations of the Italian Late Renaissance to Spain (Spain artistically backwards) El Greco: El Greco: The Transition from Mannerism to the Baroque in Spain Greco settled permanently in Toledo in 1577 Count Orgaz: benefactor of the Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo Two registers: heavenly and earthly realm Visionary painting: elongated figures, sense of mysticism, swirling clouds, dark tonalities Incite religious fervor in believers>Counter­Reformation Ribera: Ribera: Catholic Orthodoxy José de Ribera, Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, c. 1639, oil o/canvas Spain in 17th century: Habsburg­ruled; hotbed of Catholic reaction again Protestantism Promotion of fervent religious emotionalism, Catholic orthodoxy Ribera: Ribera: Catholic Orthodoxy Promotion of iconography of saints Here St. Bartholomew hoisted in position to be skinned alive Bulky, plebeian figure type similar to Caravaggio’s St. Bartholomew: emaciated, not idealized Dark tonalities, contrast between light and shadow Zurbarán: Zurbar Martyrdom during the Middle Ages Francisco de Zurbarán, Saint Serapion, 1628, oil o/canvas Painted for a monastic Order of Mercy Devotional image in a funerary chapel Serapion martyred during 3rd Crusade (1196), while preaching Gospel to Muslims Gruesome torture before execution (decapitation) Suffering of saint emphasized, dark tonalities; details of tress, otherwise dark background in contrast with white linen cloth of saint’s dress Velázquez: Vel Spanish Court Painter Diego Velázquez, Water Carrier of Seville, c. 1619, oil o/canvas Court painter to Philip IV of Spain; close to king Left Spain only once to travel to Italy, otherwise active only in Madrid Velázquez: Vel Spanish Court Painter Typical example of a genre scene (=a scene from lowlife) Type of iconography to become increasingly appreciated by aristocracy Bulky mass of water carrier in the center, old, ragged appearance Brownish tonalities Velázquez: Vel Spanish Court Painter Diego Velázquez, Surrender of Breda, 1634­1635, oil o/canvas Habsburg Empire: included the Netherlands Spread of Protestantism in NL>insurrection against Spain Here: Dutch city of Breda surrenders to Spanish troops (mayor of Breda hands over keys of the city) Emphasis on Spanish clemency: The mayor does not have to kneel down before Spanish general Velázquez: Vel Spanish Court Painter Diego Velázquez, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644, oil o/canvas Portrait of Velázquez’s patron Not noted for his beauty Richly embroidered dress Baton of military command Velázquez: Vel Spanish Court Painter Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656, oil o/canvas Most famous painting by Velázquez Scene from court life in Madrid: Right: Infanta (Princess) Margarita with two maids­in­waiting, dwarfs and dogs Dwarfs were commonly kept at European courts for entertainment Background: chamberlain in door frame Velázquez: Vel Spanish Court Painter Left: Self­portrait of Velázquez as he paints a large canvas; with red cross of the Order of Santiago Reflection in the mirror: the king and the queen Is Velázquez painting the royal couple? Or the Infanta and her retinue? >unclear A moment of modern self­ consciousness, exchange of gazes allows the modern subject to recognize himself as “man” (Michel Foucault) ...
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