ARTHLecture11-1

ARTHLecture11-1 - ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey...

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Unformatted text preview: ARTH 1441: ARTH 1441: Historical Survey of the Arts: Renaissance to Modern Professor: Darius A. Spieth Art History Program LSU School of Art Outline Lecture 11 Outline Lecture 11 Characteristics of Baroque architecture in Italy Architecture of St. Peter’s in Rome (Vatican) French painting of the 17th century Characteristics of Baroque Characteristics of Baroque Architecture in Italy Baroque: Outgrowth of the Counter­ Reformation Visual propaganda to affirm the leadership role of the Roman Catholic Church Grandiosity, spectacular effects, sense of drama Architectural elements: undulating facades, oval or irregular plans, deviation from Renaissance central plans, asymmetry Initiated by Pope Sixtus V (ruled 1585­1590) Maderno: Maderno: Architect of St. Peter’s Façade Carlo Maderno, Santa Susanna, Rome, 1597­1603 Symmetry taken from Renaissance architecture But niches with sculptures, multiplication of columns, dramatic recesses, scroll buttresses: Baroque qualities Modeled after Gicomo della Porta’s church of Il Gesù (Rome, 1575­1584), a prototype for churches of the Jesuit order Maderno: Maderno: Architect of St. Peter’s Façade Design principles are the same, but Maderno’s façade is more dramatic, has greater depth. Sculptures and recesses play a more prominent role>Baroque spirit Maderno’s design attracted attention of Pope Paul V>asked Maderno to finish the construction of New St. Peter’s Old St. Peter’s vs. New St. Old St. Peter’s vs. New St. Peter’s Maderno: Maderno: Architect of St. Peter’s Façade Carlo Maderno, St. Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, 1606­ 1612 Maderno responsible for the present façade of St. Peter’s>Baroque style St. Susanna design blown to gigantic proportions Classical temple façade with niches, classical statuary on the balustrade of the roof, before a giant dome (bell towers added later) Maderno: Maderno: Architect of St. Peter’s Façade Maderno completed a project that was started by Bramante and Michelangelo Maderno abandoned the central plan, symmetry of previous designs He created depth by adding three nave bays to the previous structure; created irregularity >Baroque Piazza with double­ colonnade: Gianlorenzo Bernini Bernini: Bernini: Piazza of St. Peter’s Gianlorenzo Bernini, Piazza of St. Peter’s, Vatican, 1656­1667 Idea: “embracing” pilgrims symbolically Egyptian obelisk centrally integrated into the design Tuscan columns>simplicity Trapezoid and oval shape combined Renaissance regularity abandoned> theatricality, spectacle Borromini: Borromini: Baroque Fantasy Architecture Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1665­1676 Two facades Undulating movement of the façade Incrustations with sculptures, niches, columns, recesses Highly irregular plan defined by oval shapes Borromini: Borromini: Baroque Fantasy Architecture Hybrid of a Greek Cross plan and an oval Needed to accommodate curving street> irregular piece of land> irregular shape of church Coffered, Oval Ceiling with Coffered, Oval Ceiling with Dove of the Holy Spirit Borromini: Borromini: Baroque Fantasy Architecture Francesco Borromini, Chapel of Saint Ivo, College of the Sapienza, Rome, begun 1642 Chapel located at the end of the interior courtyard of the College of the Sapienza (=Wisdom, training facility for clergy) Juxtaposition of concave and convex elements/positive and negative space Dramatic effect, visually interesting Borromini: Borromini: Baroque Fantasy Architecture Interior view of dome of the Chapel of Saint Ivo Star pattern Star­shaped decorative patterns Gilded highlights Borromini: Borromini: Baroque Fantasy Architecture Plan of Saint Ivo Courtyard with colonnaded gallery Chapel main focus of attention Star­shaped pattern reflected also in plan of the dome Guarini: Guarini: The Baroque Style in Turin Guarino Guarini, Palazzo Carignano, Turin, 1679­ 1692 Thanks to Guarini, Northern Italian city of Turin one of the centers of the Baroque style Tripartite division of façade Undulating façade gives a sense of drama, adds visual interest, almost eccentric Plan of Building’s Central Section: Plan of Building’s Central Section: Oval Plan Guarini: Guarini: The Baroque Style in Turin Guarino Guarini, Chapel of Santissime Sindone (Holiest Shroud), View into the dome, Turin, 1667­1694 Interior view at dome Dramatic succession of domes, one grafted upon the other Guarini: Guarini: The Baroque Style in Turin Kaleidoscopic pattern Windows, coffers of ceiling in different shapes Talks to sensations, not rationality Illusion of being lifted up into heaven Guarini: Guarini: The Baroque Style in Turin France in 17th France in 17th Century Rule of the “Sun King” Louis XIV (ruled 1661­ 1715) Centralization (all power, cultural activity centralized in Paris) Leading European power of the 17th and 18th centuries Religious conflicts, persecutions of Protestants Poussin: Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, c. 1655, oil o/canvas Poussin established the dominance of classical mythology, history in French painting for the next 300 years Poussin’s classicism will become the dogma of academic training in art until end of 19th century Born in Normandy, but lived most of his life in Rome; disdained Parisian art world Returned to Paris only at the end of his life Recreated landscapes of Classical Antiquity for his mythological scenes and history paintings Poussin: Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Poussin invented the hierarchy of genres: Top: History painting (painting depicting historical or mythological events from Classical Antiquity) Bottom: Still lives, genre (lowlife) scenes, portrait painting, etc. History painting will become the gold standard of academic training Poussin: Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Et in Arcadia Ego typical Poussin work Idealized, Arcadian setting Shepherds in Arcadia decipher inscription on a coffin “I, too, in Arcadia” Discovery of their own mortality Female figure: Spirit of Death? Poussin: Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Nicolas Poussin, Burial of Phocion, 1648, oil o/canvas Idealized, classical landscape, serenity Iconography based on Plutarch’s Life of Phocion Virtuous Athenian general put unjustly to death for treason (by majority vote) Poussin: Poussin: The Invention of Academic Classicism Eventually, judgment was reversed, Phocion received state funeral Only reference to story: two bearers with stretcher, carrying Phocion’s body in the foreground Background: Idealized, classical fantasy architecture Lorrain: Lorrain: The Classical Landscape Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Cattle and Peasants, 1629, oil o/canvas Lorrain cited together with Poussin as master painter of classical (Roman) landscapes Emphasis on atmospheric effects (haziness, soft focus) Famous for all­suffusing golden light of his pictures Lorrain: Lorrain: The Classical Landscape Symbolic markers of classical setting: flora (cypresses), tombs, temples, aqueducts (typically in the distance) Bucolic aspects of landscape painting stressed Cattle, shepherds, etc. Life at a slow pace Narrative is of lesser interest than to Poussin Lorrain: Lorrain: The Classical Landscape Claude Lorrain, Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, 1648, oil o/canvas Lorrain’s “Golden Light” Harbor Scenes typically associated with Lorrain 17th century French harbor, Biblical story line Near Eastern fantasy setting>remote in time and space Le Nain: Le Nain: French Peasant Life Louis Le Nain, Family of Country People, c. 1640, oil o/canvas One of three brothers, all painters Example of Genre (lowlife) painting (strong in Dutch tradition) Painted during the Thirty Years’ War: constant war, hardship, famines in the countryside Le Nain: Le Nain: French Peasant Life Le Nain depicted peasants with dignity and subservient Not peasants in revolt Despite difficult life, they are self­content Not starving Brownish tonalities typical for genre scenes Callot: Callot: The Miseries of War Jacques Callot, Hanging Tree, from the Large Miseries of War series, 1633, etching Seventeenth­Century printmaker specialized in the depiction of scenes from the Thirty Years’ War Callot: Callot: The Miseries of War Callot used art to depict the misery and cruelty war brought about>first time that the misery of war was depicted in Western art Here: mass­executions by hanging in a military camp La Tour: La Tour: Tenebrism in France Georges de La Tour, Adoration of the Shepherds, 1645­1650, oil o/canvas Influenced by Caravaggio and Dutch genre painting Biblical scene depicted in secular terms; the birth of Christ is not a supernatural event>candlelight, not heavenly light from unknown source La Tour: La Tour: Tenebrism in France Peasant or plebeian types, seen previously in Caravaggio No angels, haloes, other Christian attributes Scene saturated with spirituality, deep­seated religious devotion Religion runs deep in the countryside; cities seen as morally corrupt ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2012 for the course ARTH 1440 taught by Professor Camerlenghi during the Fall '11 term at LSU.

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