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Unformatted text preview: Socialization: Development of the Self I. Socialization: Development of the Self Socialization: process of how one learns what’s expected in society- Life-long-Primary Socialization occurs during childhood Fundamental learn identity-Secondary Socialization: occurs during adulthood Learn behaviors and attitudes assoc. with roles Both based on Biology and Social Experience As seen in cases of social isolation such as Gene, Anna, and Isabella People can recover from isolation, but only to a point II. Theories of Socialization (Childhood) Symbolic Interaction Theory (Mead): - Three Stages: 1. Imitation Stage (0-2 yrs): mimic parents 2. Play Stage (2-5yrs): take on one role of particular others (mom, teacher, etc) Mostly dress- up play 3. Game Stage (5 + yrs): taking role of generalized other- Key process: Learn to take the Perspective of others- Socializing Agents: all people who affect one’s development Not just parents includes peers, teachers, etc Cahill: “Fashioning Gender Identity”:- Sex class Identity/ Establishing Gender Identity:- Determined by personal front: surface judgment (costume) Hair and clothing are the first things babies associate with gender- Ex. Father/son swimming, all nude, but some wearing swim caps and babies assume they are female despite anatomy Deviance I. What is Deviance? Deviance: When a person breaks the norms of society - Accompanied by negative sanctions- Deviance is Socially Constructed II. Crime and Consequences Crime: deviant acts that states define as illegal Types of Crime: 1. Violent Crimes (Crimes against persons) 2. Property Crimes (theft, doesn’t include “white collar” crime) 3. Victimless Crime (‘Crimes without complaint’)- Ex. Illegal drugs, gambling, prostitution Social Patterns of Crime:- Crime rates are related to age, gender, SES, and race- People between 15-24 yrs old commit largest percentage of crimes- Men are arrested for large majority of crimes Pager: “The Market of a Criminal Record”- 2:1 ratio of job callbacks between whites without v. whites with a record- 3:1 ratio of job callbacks between blacks without v. blacks with a record White Black No Record 34 % callbacks 14% callbacks Criminal Record 17% callbacks 5% callbacks Though having a record itself had an effect on job callbacks, race seemed to also have a strong underlying effect III. Sociological Explanations of Deviance Learning Theory :- You learn to become deviant by the people you associate yourself with- Deviance is associated with subculture- Ex. Becker: Smoking Marijuana among jazz musicians 1. Learn smoking isn’t bad 2. Learn to smoke 3. Learn to enjoy smoking Strain (Anomie) Theory :- Deviance is the result of the way society is organized- Society doesn’t provide enough opportunities to succeed which leads to strain (frustration)- A reaction to strain is to use illegitimate means to achieve goals Ex. Anderson: “Code of the Streets”: Phili subculture:- Economically depressed...
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- Fall '09
- Sociology, Cultural capital, iii. Social class