GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS Amitai Etzioni ( ) classified organizations into three categories 1. Normative organizations —voluntary membership to pursue common interest or to gain personal satisfaction—class, race and gender affect membership—class is most important because the cost of an organization may exclude poor people—half of all voluntary organizations in the US are exclusively female—very few control mechanisms since membership is voluntary 2. Coercive Organizations —people forced to join—often involved with involuntary resocialization—restrictive barriers 3. Utilitarian Organizations —voluntary—people join a group when material rewards are provided—what about the workplace? Bureaucracies —organizational model with a 1. hierarchy of authority, 2. a clear division of labor, 3. explicit rules and procedures and 4. impersonality in personnel matters— Dilbert—examples of bureaucracies are corporations, school systems, unions, non-profit
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