Illegitimate Opportunity Structures

Illegitimate Opportunity Structures - DEVIANCE AND CRIME...

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DEVIANCE AND CRIME Illegitimate Opportunity Structures —developed by sociologists Richard Cloward and Lloyd Olin (1960) to expand Merton’s role strain theories—circumstances provide the opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through accepted methods—gangs, according to Felix M. Padilla (1993), become entrepreneurial enterprises, and not just a clique or peer group—strict sense of collective action and solidarity—found three kinds of gang activity criminal gangs—devoted to theft, extortion and other illegal means of securing an income— conflict gangs—emotional values, like turf retreatist gangs—simply do not function—can’t get money through “legal” means and are not willing to use “illegal” means, so just exist Lewis Yablonsky (1997) updated Cloward and Olin by including racial and ethnic elements Focus is on social deviance and class origins—according to Anne Campbell (1984): gangs are “a microcosm of American society, a mirror image in which power, possession, rank and role . . .are found within the subcultural life of poverty and crime.” – her theory is opposed by Charles Tittle and Robert Meier (1990) who dispute the idea that poverty breeds crime, and they claim that most poor people are law-abiding while
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Illegitimate Opportunity Structures - DEVIANCE AND CRIME...

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