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Informal Structure in bureaucracies

Informal Structure in bureaucracies - GROUPS AND...

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GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS Informal Structure in bureaucracies —participants’ activities that do not correspond to the formal structure—the “grapevine”—conflict communications—creates new models of organization—peer pressure in the workplace— The Hawthorne Effect was an attempt to figure out how to make individuals work faster, against their “informal” resistance—conducted by Elton Mayo , the research at Western Electric’s Hawthorne plant, near Chicago, from 1924 to 1932, helped to launch a whole new approach to human relations in industry, an approach that underlies current attempts by American industry to motivate workers and increase productivity by redesigning job conditions— challenged Taylorism, which proposed that workers were only motivated by money and needed a structure--it reflected the change from a workshop system, where the workers controlled the pace of production, and regulated among themselves how the work process should be carried out, and the post-Taylor workplace with a clearly identified “management” and ‘workers”—showed inherent sense of co-operation among workers if left “uncontrolled”—Hawthorne tried to use these networks as motivating forces— The first three experiments at the Hawthorne plant tested the effects of different degrees of illumination on the work of groups of women who inspected parts, assembled relays, or wound coils of wire. According to later accounts, the women in each of these experiments
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