COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, AND SOCIAL CHANGE TYPES OF CROWD BEHAVIOR Crowds are aggregates , a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but it does not necessarily produce collective behavior—often individuals will act beyond what they might do on their own—does this represent a “herd” mentality?—most sociologists do not think so Herbert Blumer developed four categories of crowds (1946): 1. Casual crowds —relatively large gatherings who interact only briefly and accidentally (shopping mall, bus, public performance) and have basically nothing in common 2. Conventional crowds —people who come together for a scheduled event and thus share a common focus (religious service, graduation, college class)—pre-established schedules and norms, and usually repeated, so there is some interaction between individuals 3. Expressive the expression of some strong emotion, such a joy, grief or excitement —street demonstrations, funerals—no physical action involved
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Herbert Blumer, crowd behavior, Clark McPhail, protest crowds