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Exam 3 Study Guide

Exam 3 Study Guide - Test 3 Review Chapter 8 Intro to...

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Test 3 Review Chapter 8 – Intro to metabolism 1) What are the two laws of energy transformation (thermodynamics)? 1 st law of thermodynamics: energy can be transferred and transformed, but not destroyed. (Energy of the universe is constant) 2 nd law: every energy transfer or transformation makes the universe more disordered. (Every process increases entropy) 2) What is the free energy equation? What does G have to be for a reaction to be spontaneous? Why? Delta G = Delta H – T times Delta S Free energy equals the change in a system’s enthalpy (total energy) minus the exact temperature (Kelvin) times the change in a system’s entropy (disorder). The value of Delta G must be negative; the system has to give up enthalpy (H), order (S) or both Delta G can only be negative with a loss of free energy during the change from initial to final stage. Free energy measures a system’s instability. The more unstable, then the higher the Delta G. Ex: Diver 3) What is the relationship between equilibrium and spontaneous reactions?
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