Einstein Condensation

Einstein Condensation - Heat Now that we have applied all...

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Einstein Condensation Since there is no restriction on the number of particles in the ground state, a low enough temperature would deny the system of the thermal excitation required to promote very many bosons out of the lowest energy orbital. There is, then, a transition temperature below which the lowest energy "ground" orbital possesses a large number of bosons. Above this temperature, entropy and thermal excitation render the ground orbital sparsely populated. This transition temperature is known as the Einstein condensation temperature, and the effect of bosons crowding the ground orbital is known as the Einstein condensation. The Einstein condensation temperature is given by: τ âÉá ( ) 2/3 The most common condensate is liquid Helium. The crowding is so profound that one can actually see macroscopically the ground orbital of a Helium liquid with the proper equipment. Physics such as superfluidity are also outgrowths of the study of this condensation.
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Unformatted text preview: Heat Now that we have applied all of our tools to analyze gasses, we want to finish by looking at a more pragmatic application, heat engines. The basic heat engine converts heat into work. We will start by defining heat and work. We will revisit the thermodynamic identity with our new vocabulary. We will show how the fundamental differences between heat and work give rise to inefficiency in engines and the Carnot inequality. We will look closely at the basic heat engine, keeping track of heat, energy, and entropy in the process. We will turn to more commonly-used appliances and relate them to the heat engine, namely refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps. We will examine a simplified model of most real engines, known as the Carnot cycle, and investigate it graphically. Finally, we will look at isothermal and isobaric processes....
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course PHY PHY2053 taught by Professor Davidjudd during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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