4.NatureNurtureMM - What Makes You You Each of us is unique...

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1 1 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Chapter 3 Psy12000 What Makes You You? • Each of us is unique. – We look different, we have varying personalities, interests, and cultural and family backgrounds 2 What Makes You You? • We also share a lot in common. – We share a biological heritage, cut us, we bleed. – Shared brain architecture predisposes us to sense the world, develop language, and feel hunger through identical mechanisms. – We prefer sweet tastes to sour; we divide color spectrum into similar colors, we feel drawn to behaviors that produce and protect offspring. 3 What Makes You You? – We fear strangers at 8 months. – We prefer company of those with similar attitudes and attributes. – We know how to read on another’s smiles and frowns. – We affiliate, conform, return favors, punish offenses, organize hierarchies of status, and grieve a child’s death. • This is Human Nature. 4 What Makes You You? • What causes our diversity, and our shared human nature? • How much are human differences shaped by our differing genes? • How much by our environment? – From nutrition within the womb to social support while nearing the tomb? – Our upbringing? Our culture? Our current circumstances? 5 6 What is the Nature-Nurture Debate? What accounts for our behavioral proclivities, talents, abilities, personality, pre-dispositions, intelligence, temperament? Are we born with these differences? ( Nature ) Or, do we acquire these differences from our parents’ influence, societal influence, friends, etc? ( Nurture )
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2 7 Nature Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature Natural Selection: Variations (from mutations or new gene combinations) that increase the odds of reproducing and surviving are most likely to be passed on to future generations. An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality Males: broadcasting; goal is to increase chances of spreading their genes: seek healthy/fertile/nurturing mate(s) Females: narrowcasting; seek mates with resources and potential for long-term investment in their joint offspring: healthy/security/ strong mates 8 Nature Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective Post-hoc? Starts from an effect and works backward to an explanation. Gives too little emphasis to social influences. Absolves people from taking responsibility for their sexual behavior Promotes Status Quo 9 Nurture and Human Diversity This perspective emphasizes the influence of parents and peers: Cultural Influences Variations Across Cultures Culture and the Self Collectivistic Individualistic Culture and Child-Rearing Protective Punitive Promote independence 10 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity Developmental Similarities Across Groups Gender Development Gender Similarities and Differences 11 Nature vs. Nurture Genes For “universals,” looks for similarities across cultures (but
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4.NatureNurtureMM - What Makes You You Each of us is unique...

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